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Agarwal, Anil, and Sunita Narain, 1991. Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism. New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment

Bingemer, H G. and P J Crutzen, 1987. 'The Production of Methane from Solid Wastes.' Journal of Geophysical Research 90(D2): 2181-2187

Bolin, Bert, 1986. 'How Much CO: Will Remain in the Atmosphere?' in The Greenhouse Effect, Climatic Change, and Ecosystems. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons

Brown, S. A J R Gillespie and A E Lugo, 1989. 'Biomass Estimation Methods for Tropical Forests with Applications to Forestry Inventory Data.' Forest Science 35 881-902

Casada, M E, and L M Safely, Jr, 1990. Global Methane Emissions from Livestock and Poultry Manure. A report submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency by the Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, North Carolina State University

Crutzen, P J. and M O Andreae, 1990. 'Biomass Burning in the Tropics: Impact on Atmospheric Chemistry and Biogeochemical Cycles.' Science 250: 1669-1677

Crutzen, P J. l Aselmann and W Seiler, 1986. 'Methane Production by Domestic Animals, Wild Ruminants, Other Herbivorous Fauna, and Humans.' Tellus 38B: 271-284

ECE/FAO, 1985. The Forest Resources of the ECE Region (Europe, USSR, North America). Geneva: The United Nations

Eichner, M J. 1990. 'Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Fertilized Soils: A Summary of Available Data.' Journal of Environmental Quality 19: 272-280

FAO, 1987. 1986 Production Yearbook. Rome: FAO
FAO, 1988a. FAO Fertilizer Yearbook. Rome: FAO

FAO, 1988b. An Interim Report on the State of the Forest Resources in the Developing Countries. Rome: FAO

FAO, 1990a. Interim Report on Forest Resources Assessment 1990 Project. Committee on Forestry, Tenth Session, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

FAO, 1990b. 1988 Production Yearbook. Rome: FAO

Fearnside, P M, A T Tardin and L G M Filho, 1990. Deforestation Rate in Brazilian Amazon. National Secretariat of Science and Technology, Brazil

Grubb, M, J Sebenius, A Magalhaes and S Subak, 1992. 'Sharing the Burden' in Confronting Climate Change. I M Mintzer (ed). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Grubb, M J. D G Victor and C W Hope, 1991. 'Pragmatics in the Greenhouse.' Nature 354(6352): 348-350

Gruebler, A, and Y Fujii, 1991. 'Inter-Generational and Spatial Equity Issues of Carbon Accounts.' Energy 16(11112): 1397-1416

Houghton, R A, 1991. 'Tropical Deforestation and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.' Climatic Change 19: 99-118

ICF, 1990. 'Emissions Estimates by Country.' Memo from Craig Ebert and Amy Kim of ICE to Paul Schwengels and Dillip Ahuja of US EPA Office of Global Change (September 25)

IPCC, 1990. Climate Change - The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

IPCC, 1991. IPCC Working Group One. Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks: Update

IPCC, 1992. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report of the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press

Keeling, Charles, 1973. 'Industrial Production of Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuels and Limestone.' Tellus XXV(2)

Krause, F. W Bach and J Koomey, 1989. Energy Policy in the Greenhouse. El Cerrito, CA: International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths

Leng, R A, 1991. Improving Ruminant Production and Reducing Methane Emissions from Ruminants by Strategic Supplementation. Office of Air and Radiation, US EPA, EPA/ 40011-911004. June

Logan, J A, M I Prather, S C Wofsy and M B McElroy, 1981. 'Tropospheric Chemistry: A Global Perspective' Journal of Geophysical Research 86: 7210-7254

Marland, Greg, T A Boden, R C Griffin, S F Huang, P Kancirok and T R Nelson, 1988, 1989, 1990. Estimates of CO2 Emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning and Cement Manufacturing Using the United Nations Energy Statistics and the U.S. Bureau of Mines Cement Manufacturing Data. NDP030. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Mitchell, B R. 1981. European Historical Statistics: 1750- 1975. New York: Facts on File

Mitchell, B R. 1982. International Historical Statistics: Africa and Asia. New York: New York University Press

Mitchell, B R. 1983. International Historical Statistics: The Americas and Australia. Detroit: Gale Research Co

Myers, N. 1989. Deforestation Rates in Tropical Forests and Their Climatic Implications. A Friends of the Earth Report (December)

OECD, 1991. Country Positions on Climate Change. Group on Energy and Environment. ENV/EC/EN (91)4

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OECD/IEA, 1990b World Energy Statistics and Balances 1985-1988. OECD, Paris

Parikh, J. K Parikh, S Gokarn, J P Painuly, B Saha and V Shuckla 1991. Consumption Patterns: The Driving Force of Environmental Stress. Bombay, India: Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research

Richards, John, Jerry Olson and Ralph Rotty, 1983. Development of a Data Base for Carbon Dioxide Releases Resulting from Conversion of Land to Agricultural Uses. Publication No. 2181. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Schuetz, H. A Holzapfel-Pschorn, R Conrad, H Rennenberg and W Seiler, 1989. 'A Three-Year Continuous Record on the Influence of Daytime, Season and Fertilizer Treatment on Methane Emission Rates from an Italian Rice Paddy.' Journal of Geophysical Research 94(D13): 16405-16416

Siegenthaler, U. and H Oeschger, 1987. 'Biospheric CO2 Emissions During the Past 200 Years Reconstructed by Deconvolution of Ice Core Data.' Tellus 39B: 140-154

Smith, K, 1991. 'Allocating Responsibility for Global Warming: The Natural Debt Index.' Ambio 20(2)

Smith, K R. J Swisher, R Kanter and D R Ahuja, 1990. Indices for a Greenhouse Gas Control Regime: Incorporating Both Efficiency and Equity Goals. Prepared for the Environmental Policy and Research Division of the World Bank (December); see Chapter 4 of this book

Subak, Susan, and William Clark, 1990. 'Accounts for Greenhouse Gases: Towards the Design of Fair Assessments,' in Usable Knowledge for Managing Global Climatic Change. William C Clark (ed.). Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm Environment Institute

Subak, Susan, Paul Raskin and David Von Hippel, 1993. National Greenhouse Gas Accounts: Current Anthropogenic Sources and Sinks. Climatic Change. November

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Von Hippel, D, P D Raskin and S Subak, 1993. 'Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy: Two Approaches.' Energy Policy, June

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Appendix A: Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions

This list gives estimates of the emissions used in this chapter.

1 Cumulative CO2 energy (1860-1986):
  Fossil fuel combustion: 178 GT carbon as CO2 (CO2 C)
2 Cumulative CO2 (1860-1986):
  Fossil fuel combustion: 178 GT CO2 C
  Land use changes: 66 GT CO2 C
  Total: 244 GT CO2 C
3 Current CO2 energy (1988):
  Fossil fuel combustion: 5.4 GT CO2 C/year
4 Partial CH4 and CO2 (1988):
  Fossil fuel combustion: 5.4 GT CO2 C
  Land use changes: 0.9 GT CO2 C
  Landfills: 36 MT CH4 (170 MT Carbon Equivalence (CE))
  Fossil fuel production: 74 MT CH4 (424 MT CE)
  Total: 6.9 GT CE
5 Comprehensive emissions (1988)
  In addition to the above:  
  Fossil and wood combustion: 201 GT CO C (341 MT CE)
    1.3 MT N2O (103 MT CE)
  Cement production: 150 MT CO2 C
  Halocarbons: 1.4 MT CFC-11 equivalent (1,337 MT CE)
  Biomass burning: 36 MT CH4 (170 MT CE),
    276 MT CO C (251 MT CE),
    1.6 MT N2O (126 MT CE)
  Soil release, tropical pasture: 0.1 MT N2O (8 MT CE)
  Enteric fermentation: 75 MT CH4 (354 MT CE)
  Animal wastes: 28 MT CH4 (132 MT CE)
  Rice cultivation: 98 MT CH4 (463 MT CE)
  Fertilizer consumption: 0.8 MT N2O (63 MT CE)
  Total: 10.3 GT CE


Appendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions

This Appendix summarizes the sources and methods used for calculating emissions listed above.

Cumulative CO2, energy

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion between 1860 and 1986 rely on Marland et al. (1988) for the 1950-1986 period, and Subak and Clark (1990) for emissions between 1860 and 1949. The cumulative estimates do not take into account the proportion of trace gas removed from the atmosphere. Energy consumption data used in Subak and Clark (1990) are based on Mitchell's (1981, 1982, and 1983) International Historical Statistics series. Global emissions factors were derived from Marland et al. (1988) and weighted by carbon density estimates by nation published in the United Nations 1986 Energy Statistics Yearbook (1988). In cases where political borders have changed since 1860, emissions were assigned to countries based on estimated energy use share. For example, fossil fuel consumption in the Indian States was assigned as follows: India, 80 per cent; Pakistan, 15 per cent; and Bangladesh, 5 per cent.

Cumulative CO2, energy and biota

Emissions of CO2 between 1860 and 1986 are based on the fossil fuel data set described above and the Richards et al. (1983) database on CO2 release from forest conversion to agricultural purposes. The Richards et al. data set for the 1860-1978 period is based on historical agricultural censuses and FAO land use surveys completed in 1950. To update the database to 1986, we used the FAO 1986 Production Yearbook (FAO 1987). As forest conversion to non-agricultural uses was not included, this database is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of CO2 emissions from land use changes.

Current CO2, energy

Current CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are calculated at the Stockholm Environment Institute (don Hippel et al. 1992) based on 1988 energy consumption data published by the OECD/IEA, (1990a, 1990b). Carbon dioxide emissions from oil flaring were taken from the Marland et al (1990) compendium. As in the cumulative CO2 inventories, emissions from renewables, that is, fuelwood, are assumed to be in a steady-state, with no net CO2 emissions.

Partial CH4 and CO2

Methane emissions from coal mining are derived from ICF (1990b) and natural gas transportation and distribution from OECD/IEA, (1990a, 1990b) CO2 release from deforestation is based on land clearing estimates from FAO (1990), Fearnside et al. (1990), FAO (1988b) and Myers (1989), biomass levels by Brown et al. (1989) and carbon soil emission rates by Houghton (1991). Afforestation rates are primarily from ECE/FAO (1985) and FAO (1988b). The landfill CH4 source is based on a methodology outlined by Bingemer and Crutzen (1987) and waste generation, landfilling and waste composition information is compiled from disparate sources.

The current emissions are expressed in CO2 equivalent units, which compare the relative warming contribution of the trace gases. The CO2 equivalents are based on each trace gas Global Warming Potential (GWP), an index that includes the immediate radiative effect of the gases and the potential warming effect over the time the trace gas resides in the atmosphere. The GWP used in this study is calculated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and corresponds to a 100 year time horizon.

Comprehensive emissions

To estimate methane emissions from livestock production, emission factors (Crutzen et al. 1986) were applied to FAO livestock population estimates (1990b), and Casada and Safely's (1990) study of CH4 release from animals wastes was used. Methane emissions from rice cultivation are derived from emission factors (Schuetz et al. 1989) and rice cultivation area (FAO 1990b). Emissions of N2O from fertilizer consumption was calculated using the mid-range of Eichner's (1990) emission factors and data from the FAO Fertilizer Yearbook (1988a). Halocarbon emissions were calculated using ICF's (1990) methodology for converting from UNEP's (1990) production figures to emissions. Release of CO2 from cement manufacturing was derived using emission factors from Marland et al. 1988. Biomass burning estimates were taken from Crutzen and Andreae (1990), and adjusted to avoid double counting with the fuelwood and deforestation emissions.

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