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The Global Greenhouse Regime
• Who Pays? •

Table of contents (400 p.)

Edited by Peter Hayes and Kirk Smith

United Nations University Press

Earthscan Publications Ltd. London

Science, economics and North-South politics in the Climate Change Convention


The United Nations University's programme on Human and Policy Dimensions of Global Change is concerned with the complex interlinkages between human activities and the environment. It is recognised that in order to devise effective responses to combat global environmental change it is essential to understand the human and societal causes underlying the transformation of the physical environment. The objectives of the programme are:

  1. to increase awareness of the complex dynamics governing human interaction with the Earth as a whole system;
  2. to strengthen efforts to anticipate social change affecting the global environment;
  3. to analyse policy options for dealing with global environmental change; and
  4. to identify broad social strategies to prevent or mitigate undesirable impacts of global environmental change.

After the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, a central issue in the Climate Change Convention relates to the amounts and sources of the greenhouse gases emitted from the various countries and regions, both industrialized and developing, and their relation to international governance. To date, the lack of agreed principles has stalled agreement as to what concrete and practical steps should be taken to meet the needs for stabilizing climate change.

The present book is the outcome of the UNU international collaborative research carried out under the Human and Policy Dimensions of Global Change programme. It is aimed at presenting the state of the art in greenhouse indices, and related international policy making and governance, clarifying key technical issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions, and outlining the economic responsibilities of various countries based on the emissions. It makes an argument for the necessary North-South resource transfers.


This book is dedicated to the two Nadias
May their parents' generation learn in time that accepting liability for past errors is the other side of undertaking responsibility for the future

First published in 1993 by
Earthscan Publications Limited
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United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
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Tel.: (03) 3499-2811. Fax: (03) 3406-7345.
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Reprinted 1994

The United Nations University, 1993

The United Nations University Press has exclusive rights to distribute in Japan and South-East Asia.

Earthscan Publications Limited has exclusive rights to distribute throughout the rest of the world.

All rights reserved
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN: 185383136 0

Printed and bound in Great Britain by
Biddles Ltd. Guildford and King's Lynn

Earthscan Publications Limited is an editorially independent subsidiary of Kogan Page Limited and publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development and the World Wide Fund for Nature.

United Nations University Press is the publishing division of the United Nations

ISBN (United Nations University Press): 92-808-0836-2


List of contributors



Part I Measuring responsibility

1 Introduction

The greenhouse effect
What was decided at Rio?
Protocol negotiating difficulties
Key issues for climate change negotiations

2 The basics of greenhouse gas indices

Apples and oranges
Conclusion: indices do matter

3 Assessing emissions: five approaches compared

Comprehensiveness compared
Accuracy by category
Regional and national emissions by source
Appendix A: Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions
Appendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions

4 Who pays (to solve the problem and how much)?

Indices of allocation: a brief review
Equity and efficiency

Part II Resource transfers

5 North-South carbon abatement costs

Climate change convention
Method overview
Implications for the South
Notes and references

6 North-South transfer

Obligation to pay indices
Redistribution of incremental cost
UN scale of payments
Financing mechanisms
Notes and references

7 Insuring against sea level rise

Insurability of losses
Oil pollution
Nuclear damage
The insurance scheme proposed by AOSIS
The Climate Change Convention
Notes and references
Appendix: Scheme proposed by AOSIS for inclusion in the Climate Change Convention

Part III National greenhouse gas reduction cost curves

8 Integrating ecology and economy in India

Emissions inventory
Energy efficiency and fuel substitution
Emissions and sequestration from forest biomass

9 Carbon abatement potential in West Africa

Long-term energy and carbon emissions scenarios
Options for rational energy use and carbon conservation
Economic opportunities for implementation
Policy issues for the region

10 Abatement of carbon dioxide emissions in Brazil

Brazil energy economy
Energy subsector analyses
Changing land-use trends

11 Thailand's demand side management initiative: a practical response to global warming

End-use energy efficiency policies
Costs and benefits of the DSM master plan
CO2 reductions from the DSM Plan
Why should other developing countries adopt DSM?
The role of the multilateral development banks

12 Carbon abatement in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States

Energy-environment nexus
Scenarios for the future
Country results
Policy implications

13 Greenhouse gas emission abatement in Australia

Abatement of energy sector emissions
Economic impact of abatement strategies
Non-energy emission abatement
Australia's international role
Carbon taxes, externalities and other policy instruments

Part IV Conclusion

14 Constructing a global greenhouse regime

Conditionality and additionality
Technology transfer
Multi-pronged approach
Implementation procedures
Regional building blocks
North-'South' conflicts
Notes and references

Appendix: The Climate change convention

Climate change convention
Article 1. Definitions
Article 2. Objective
Article 3. Principles
Article 4 Commitments
Article 5. Research and systematic observation
Article 6. Education, training and public awareness
Article 7. Conference of the Parties
Article 8. Secretariat
Article 9. Subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice
Article 10. Subsidiary Body for implementation
Article 11. Financial mechanism
Article 12. Communication of information related to implementation
Article 13. Resolution of questions regarding implementation
Article 14. Settlement of disputes
Article 15. Amendments to the Convention
Article 16. Adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
Article 17. Protocols
Article 18. Right to vote
Article 19. Depositary
Article 20. Signature
Article 21. Interim arrangements
Article 22. Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
Article 23. Entry into force
Article 24. Reservations
Article 25. Withdrawal
Article 26. Authentic texts

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