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Appendix I: Maps
Appendix II: Zionist boundaries, 1919
Appendix III: Hydronationalism
Appendix IV: PRINCE political accounting system
Appendix V: JRDNRVR. BAS projection model
Appendix VI: Med-Dead/Red-Dead desalination project

Appendix I: Maps

Map 1 Jordan River watershed

Map 2 Border proposals 1919-1947

Map 3 International borders, 1948-1967, with water diversions

Map 4 International borders, 1967-Present, with wafer diversions

Map 5 Diagrammatic representation of groundwater (mountain aquifer). Source: Shuval (1992)

Map 6 Settlements in antiquity. Source: Broshi (1979)

Map 7 Palestine and Syria in 1915. Source: Esco Foundation (1947)

Map 8 Jewish colonies in Palestine, 1916. Source: Sacher (1916)

Map 9 Borders proposed for Palestine, 1916-1919. Source: Weizmann Letters (1968); original source: Yoman Aaron Aaronsohn 1916-1919, Aaronsohn Archives. London: Foreign Office.

Map 10 Revised "OETA" boundary, Autumn 1918. Source: Hof (1985)

Map 11 Disputed area, March-September 1919. Source: Hof (1985)

Map 12 Banias, 1923. Source: British government publication [Newcornbe (1923)]

Map 13 Growth of the Jewish national home, 1931-1939. Jewish immigration: 1931, 4,075; 1932, 12,533; 1933, 37,337; 1934, 45,267; 1935, 66,472; 1936, 29,595; 1937, 10,629; 1938, 14,675; 1939, 31,195. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 14 Royal Commission (Peel) plan for partition of Palestine, 1937. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 15 Woodhead Report Palestine Partition Plan A, 1938. Source: Esco Foundation (1947)

Map 16 Woodhead Report: Palestine Partition Plan B, 1938. Source: Esco Foundation (1947)

Map 17 Woodhead Report. Palestine Partition Plan C, 1938. Source: Esco Foundation (1947)

Map 18 Palestine Land Transfer Regulations, February 1940. Total area 10,429 square miles, including 266.5 square miles of water surface (Lake Tiberius and Palestinian half of Dead Sea). Zone A (6,615 sq. miles): land purchases by Jews prohibited; zone B (3,295 sq. miles): land purchases by Jews restricted; free zone (519 sq. miles): land purchases unrestricted; Jewish land owned by the Jewish national fund or in private ownership. Source: Esco Foundation (1947)

Map 19 United Nations plan for partition of Palestine, November 1947. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 20 Rhodes armistice demarcation line, 1948. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 21 Israel-Syria demilitarized zones, 1948-1967. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 22 Topography of the Jordan Valley region, Main Plan. Source: Main (1953)

Map 23 Plan of unified development of the Jordan Valley region, Main Plan.

Map 24 Jordan-Yarmuk river system. Source: Gruen (1991)

Map 25 Tank battles, Nuheilleh and surrounding areas, 1965. Source: Argaman (1990)

Map 26 Agro-industrial complex site areas, 1967. Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratories (1967)

Map 27 Syrian impoundments. Source: Sofer and Kliot (1988)

Map 28 Battle for the Golan Heights, 9-10 June 1967. Source: Sachar (1979)

Map 29 Hydrostrategic territory

Map 30 West Bank settlements from Likud's Master Plan for the West Bank, 1981. Source: Sachar (1987a)

Map 31 Potential interbasin water transfers. Source: Kally (1986)

Map 32 Med-Dead Canal. Source: Mediterranean-Dead Sea Co. (1983)

Appendix II: Zionist boundaries, 1919


Statement of the Zionist Organization regarding Palestine.

Third day of February Nineteen hundred and nineteen
Third day of Adar Five thousand six hundred and seventy nine.

Proposals to be presented to the Peace Conference.

The Zionist Organization respectfully submits the following draft resolutions for the consideration of the Peace Conference:

  1. The High Contracting Parties recognise the historic title of the Jewish people to Palestine and the right of the Jews to reconstitute in Palestine their National Home.
  2. The boundaries of Palestine shall be as declared in the Schedule annexed hereto.
  3. The sovereign possession of Palestine shall be vested in the League of Nations and the Government entrusted to Great Britain as Mandatory of the League.
  4. (Provision to be inserted relating to the application in Palestine of such of the general conditions attached to mandates as are suitable to the case. )
  5. The mandate shall be subject also to the following special conditions:
  1. Palestine shall be placed under such political, administrative and economic conditions as will secure the establishment there of the Jewish National Home and ultimately render possible the creation of an autonomous Commonwealth, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.
  2. To this end the Mandatory Power shall inter alia:
  1. Promote Jewish immigration and close settlement on the land, the established rights of the present non-Jewish population being equitably safeguarded.
  2. Accept the cooperation in such measures of a Council representative of the Jews of Palestine and of the world that may be established for the development of the Jewish National Home in Palestine and entrust the organization of Jewish education to such Council
  3. On being satisfied that the constitution of such Council precludes the making of private profit, offer to the Council in priority any concession for public works or for the development of natural resources which it may be found desirable to grant
  1. The Mandatory Power shall encourage the widest measure of self-government for localities practicable in the conditions of the country
  2. There shall be for ever the fullest freedom of religious worship for all creeds in Palestine There shall be no discrimination among the inhabitants with regard to citizenship and civil rights, on the grounds of religion, or of race
  3. (Provision to be inserted relating to the control of the Holy Places)

The Boundaries of Palestine


The boundaries of Palestine shall follow the general lines set out below:

Starting on the North al a point on the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity South of Sidon and following the watersheds of the foothills of the Lebanon as far as JISR EL KARAON, thence to EL BIRE following the dividing line between the two basins of tile WAD: EL Kook and the Wadi ET TEIM thence in a southerly direction following the dividing line between the Eastern and Western slopes of the HERMON, to the vicinity West of BEIT JENN, thence Eastward following the northern watersheds of the NAHR MUGHANIYE close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway

In the East a line close to and West of the Hedjaz Railway terminating in the Gulf of Akaba.

In the South a frontier to be agreed upon with the Egyptian Government.

In the West the Mediterranean Sea.

The details of the delimitations, or any necessary adjustments of detail, shall be settled by a Special Commission on which there shall be Jewish representation.


The historic title

The claims of the Jews with regard to Palestine rest upon the following main consideration:

  1. The land is the historic home of the Jews; there they achieved their greatest development from that centre, through their agency, there emanated spiritual and moral influences of supreme value to mankind By violence they were driven from Palestine, and through the ages they have never ceased to cherish the longing and the hope of a return
  2. In some parts of the world, and particularly in Eastern Europe, the conditions of life of millions of Jews are deplorable Forming often a congested population, denied the opportunities which would make a healthy development possible, the need of fresh outlets is urgent, both for their own sake and in the interest of the population of other races, among whom they dwell Palestine would offer one such outlet To the Jewish masses it is the country above all others in which they would most wish to cast their lot By the methods of economic development to which we shall refer later, Palestine can be made now as it was in ancient times, the home of a prosperous population many times as numerous as that which now inhabits it
  3. Palestine is not large enough to contain more than a proportion of the Jews of the world I he greater part of the fourteen millions or more scattered through all countries must remain in their present localities, and it will doubtless be one of the cares of the Peace Conference to ensure for them, wherever they have been oppressed, as for all peoples equal rights and humane conditions A Jewish National Home in Palestine will, however, be of high value to them also Its influence will permeate the Jewries of the world, it will inspire these millions, hitherto often despairing, with a new hope it will hold out before their eyes a higher standard; it will help to make them even more useful citizens in the lands in which they dwell.
  4. Such a Palestine would be of value also to the world at large, whose real wealth consists In the healthy diversities of its civilisations
  5. Lastly the land itself needs redemption Much of it is left desolate Its present condition is a standing reproach. Two things are necessary for that redemption - a stable and enlightened government, and an addition to the present population which shall be energetic, intelligent, devoted to the country, and backed by the large financial resources that are indispensable for development Such a population the Jews alone can supply.

Inspired by these ideas, Jewish activities particularly during the last thirty years have been directed to Palestine within the measure that the Turkish administrative system allowed. Some millions of pounds sterling have been spent in the country particularly in the foundation of Jewish agricultural settlements. These settlements have been for the most part highly successful.

With enterprise and skill the Jews have adopted modern scientific methods and have shown themselves to be capable agriculturists. Hebrew has been revived as a living language: it is the medium of instruction in the schools and the tongue is in daily use among the rising generation. The foundations of a Jewish University have been laid at Jerusalem and considerable funds have been contributed for the creation of its building and for its endowment. Since the British occupation, the Zionist Organization has expended in Palestine approximately œ50,000 a month upon relief, education and sanitation. To promote the future development of the country great sums will be needed for drainage, irrigation, roads, railways, harbours and public works of all kinds, as well as for land settlement and house building. Assuming a political settlement under which the establishment of a Jewish National Home in Palestine is assured the Jews of the world will make every effort to provide the vast sums of money that will be needed.

Hundreds of thousands of Jews pray for the opportunity speedily to begin life anew in Palestine Messengers have gone out from many places, and groups of young Jewish men proceeding on foot have already reached Trieste and Rome on their weary pilgrimage to Zion

The historic title of the Jews to Palestine was recognised by the British Government in its Declaration of November 2nd 1917, addressed by the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs to Lord Kothschild and reading as follows:

"His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."

The French Government gave its support to the British Declaration to M. Sokolow as follows:

Ministre des Affaires Etrangères de la
République Française
Le 14 Février 1918.


"Comme il avaité convenu au cours de notre entretien le samedi 9 de ce mods, le Gouvernement de la République, en vue de préciser son attitude vis-à-vis des aspirations sionistes, tendant a créer pour les juifs en Palestine un foyer national, a publié un communiqué dans la Presse.

"En vous communiquant ce texte, je saisis avec empressement l'occasion de vous féliciter du généreux dévouement avec lequel vous poursuivez la réalisalion des voeux de vos coreligionnaire et de vous remercier du zèle que vous apportez a leur faire connaître les sentiments de sympathie que leurs efforts éveillent dans les pays de l'Entente et notamment en France.

"Veuillez agréer, Monsieur, les assurances de ma considération très distinguée.

" (Sgd) S. PICHON. "


Paris, Le 9 Février 1918

Monsieur Sokolow représentant des organisations Sionistes, a été re‡u ce matin, au Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, par M. Stephen Pichon, qui a été heureux de lui confirmer que l'entente est complète entre les gouvernements français et britannique en ce qui concerne la question d'un établissement juif en Palestine.

The Italian Government has declared its approval on the same lines. The President of the United States has expressed his sympathy with the Zionist aspirations in the spirit of Mr. Balfour's declaration The Governments of Japan, Greece, Serbia, China and Siam, have added their approval to the declaration


We ask that Great Britain Shall act as Mandatory of the League of Nations for Palestine. The selection of Great Britain as Mandatory is urged on the ground that this is the wish of the Jews of the world and, the League of Nations in selecting a Mandatory will follow as far as possible, the popular wish of the people concerned.

The preference on the part of the Jews for a British Trusteeship is unquestionably the result of the peculiar relationship of England to he Jewish Palestinian problem. The return of the Jews to Zion has not only been a remarkable feature in English literature, but in the domain of statecraft it has played its part, beginning with the readmission of the Jews under Cromwell II manifested itself particularly in the 19th century in the instructions given to British Consular representatives in the Orient after the Damascus Incident; in the various Jewish Palestinian projects suggested by English non-Jews prior to 1881; in the fellers of endorsement and support given by members of the Royal Family and Officers of the Government to Lawrence Oliphant; and finally, in the three consecutive acts which definitely associated Great Britain with Zionism in the minds of the Jews, viz - The El Arish offer in 1901; the East African offer in 1903, and lastly the British Declaration in favour of a Jewish National Home in Palestine in 1917. Moreover, the Jews who have gained political experience in many lands under a great variety of governmental systems, whole-heartedly appreciate the advanced and liberal policies adopted by Great Britain in her modern colonial administration.

It may be staled without doubt that all of these things account for the attitude taken by the Jews with reference to the Trusteeship, as evidenced by the following.

On December 16th 1918, the American Jewish Congress composed of delegates representing 3,000,000 American Jews adopted the following resolution

"The American Jewish Congress instruct their delegation to Europe to co-operate with representatives of other Jewish Organizations and specifically with the world Zionist Organization, to the end that the Peace Conference may recognise the aspirations and historic claims of the Jewish people with regard to Palestine, and declare that, in accordance with the British Government's Declaration of November 2nd 1917 endorsed by the Allied Governments and the President of the United States, there shall be established such political administrative and economic conditions in Palestine, as will assure under the trusteeship of Great Britain, acting on behalf of such League of Nations as may be formed, the development of Palestine info a Jewish Commonwealth; it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which shall prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in other countries "

Similar action was taken in Jaffa in the month of December 1918 by a conference of representatives of the Jewish population in Palestine and on January 4th 1919 by Jewish Congresses representing about 2,000,000 Jews of the reconstitued States of Austria-Hungary and of Poland


The boundaries above outlined are what we consider essential for the necessary economic foundation of the country Palestine must have its natural outlets to the seas and the control of its rivers and their headwaters. The boundaries are sketched with the general economic needs and historic traditions of the country in mind, factors which necessarily must also be considered by the Special Commission in fixing the definite boundary lines. This Commission will bear in mind that it is highly desirable, in the interests of economic administration that the geographical area of Palestine should be as large as possible so that it may eventually contain a large and thriving population which could more easily bear the burdens of modern civilised government than a small country with a necessary Iimitation of inhabitants.

The economic life of Palestine, like that of every other semi-arid country depends on the available water supply It is therefore, of viral importance not only to secure all water resources already feeding the country, but also to be able to conserve and control hem al their sources

The Hermon is Palestine's real ''Father of Walers" and cannot be severed from it without striking al the very roof of its economic life The Hermon not only needs re-afforestation but also other works before it can again adequately serve as the water reservoir of the country It must therefore be wholly under the control of those who will most willingly as well as most adequately restore it to its maximum utility. Some international arrangement must be made whereby the riparian rights of the people dwelling south of the Litani River may be fully protected Properly cared /or these head walers can be made to serve in the development of the Lebanon as well as of Palestine

The fertile plains east of the Jordan, since the earliest Biblical limes, have been linked economically and politically with the land west of the Jordan The country which is now very sparsely populated, in Roman limes supported a great population. It could now serve admirably for colonisation on a large scale A just regard for the Economic needs of Palestine and Arabia demands that free access to the Hedjaz Railway throughout its length be accorded both Governments.

An intensive development of the agriculture and other opportunities of Trans-Jordania make it imperative that Palestine shall have access m the Red Sea and an opportunity of developing good harbours on the Gulf of Akaba, it will be recalled, was the terminus of an important trade route of Palestine from the days of

Solomon onwards. The ports developed in the Gulf of Akaba should be free ports through which the commerce of the Himerland may pass on the same principle which guides us in suggesting that free access be given to the Hedjaz Railway


In connection with the Government to be set up by the Mandatory of the League of Nations until such time as the people of Palestine shall be prepared to undertake the establishment of representative and responsible Government, proposals will be made in due course to the Mandatory Power to the following effect:

  1. In any instrument establishing the constitution of Palestine the Declarations of the Peace Conference shall be recited as forming an integral part of that constitution
  2. The Jewish people shall be entitled to fair representation in the executive and legislative bodies and in the selection of public and civil servants In giving such representation the Mandatory Power shall consult the Jewish Council hereinafter mentioned.

Neither law nor custom shall preclude the appointment of a citizen of Palestine as chief of the executive.

  1. That in encouraging the self-government of localities the Mandatory Power shall secure the maintenance by local communities of proper standards of administration in matters of education, communal, or regional activities. In granting or enlarging local autonomy regard shall be had to the readiness and ability of the community to attain such standards. Local autonomous communities shall be empowered and encouraged to combine and co-operate for common purposes
  2. Education without distinction of race shall be assisted from public funds
  3. Hebrew shall be one of the official languages of Palestine and shall be employed in all documents, decrees and announcements and on all stamps, coins and notes issued by the Government
  4. The Jewish Sabbath and Holy Days shall be recognised as legal days of rest.
  5. All inhabitants continuing to reside in Palestine who on the day of 19 , have their domicile in Palestine, except those who elect in writing within six months from such dale to retain their foreign citizenship, shall become citizens of Palestine, and they and all persons in Palestine or naturalized under the laws of Palestine after the day of, 19 shall be citizens thereof and entitled to the protection of the Mandatory Power on behalf of the Government of Palestine

Land commission

Recognising that the general progress of Palestine must begin with the reform of the conditions governing land tenure and settlement the Mandatory Power shall appoint a Commission (upon which the Jewish Council shall have representation) with power:

  1. To make a survey of the land and to schedule all lands that may be made available /or close settlement, intensive cultivation and public use.
  2. To propose measures for determining and registering lilies of ownership of land
  3. To propose measures for supervising transactions in land with a view of preventing land speculation.
  4. To propose measures for the close settlement, intensive cultivation and public use of land, where necessary by compulsory purchase al a fair pre-war price and further by making available all waste lands unoccupied and inadequately cultivated lands or lands without legal owners and state lands.
  5. To propose measures for the taxation and the tenure of land and in general any progressive measures in harmony with the policy of making the land available for close settlement and intensive cultivation.
  6. To propose measures whereby the Jewish Council may lake over all lands available for close settlement and intensive cultivation.
  7. In all such measures the established rights of the present population shall be equitably safeguarded


  1. A Jewish Council for Palestine shall be elected by a Jewish Congress representative of the Jews of Palestine and of the world, which shall be convoked in Jerusalem on or before the First day of January, 1920, or as soon thereafter as possible by the Provisional Jewish Council hereinafter mentioned.

The Jewish Congress shall determine its functions as well as the constitution and functions of the Jewish Council in conformity with the purpose and spirit of the Declarations of the Peace Conference and of the powers conferred by the Mandatory Power upon the Jewish Council.

  1. The Jewish Council shall be recognised as a legal entity and shall have power:
  1. To co-operate and consult with and to assist the Government of Palestine in any and all mailers affecting the Jewish people in Palestine and in all such cases to be and to act as the representative of the Jewish people.
  2. To participate in the development and administration of immigration, close land settlement, credit facilities, public works, services and enterprises, and every other form of activity conducive to the development of the country. The organization of Jewish education to be entrusted to such Council
  3. To acquire and hold real estate.
  4. To acquire and exercise concessions for public works and the development of natural resources.
  5. With the consent of the Jewish inhabitants concerned or their accredited representatives, to assess such inhabitants for the purpose of stimulating and maintaining education, communal, charitable and other public institutions (including the Jewish Council) and other activities primarily concerned with the welfare of the Jewish people in Palestine.
  6. With the approval of the Mandatory Power and upon such terms and conditions as the Mandatory Power may prescribe to administer the immigration laws of Palestine in so far as they affect Jewish immigration
  7. With the approval of the Mandatory Power, to issue bonds, debentures, or other obligations, the proceeds of any or all of which to be expended by the Jewish Council for the benefit of the Jewish people or for the development of Palestine.
  8. The Jewish Council shall hold all of its properly and income in trust for the benefit of the Jewish people.
  1. A Provisional Jewish Council of representatives of the Zionist Organization, of the Jewish population in Palestine, and of such other approved Jewish organisations as are willing to co-operate in the development of a Jewish Palestine shall be formed forthwith by the Zionist Organization. Such Provisional Jewish Council shall exercise all of the powers and perform all of the duties of the Jewish Council until such time as the Jewish Council shall be formally constituted by the Jewish Congress.
  2. Finally when in the opinion of the Mandatory Power, the inhabitants of Palestine shall be able to undertake the establishment of representative and responsible government, such steps shall be taken as will permit the establishment of such government through the exercise of a democratic franchise without regard to race or faith: and the inhabitants of Palestine under such government, shall continue to enjoy equal civil and political rights as citizens irrespective of race or faith


The foregoing proposals with reference to Palestine are submitted to the Peace Conference by the Zionist Organization. The Organization in the present form dates from the year 1897, when the first Zionst Congress was held al Basle, Switzerland, under the leadership of Theodor Herzl. This Organization absorbed al that time all Zionist Organizations which had been in existence previously 'I he Zionist Movement is supported by Jews in every country where there are Jewish Mass Settlements, i.e. in Eastern Europe, in the United States of America, in Western Europe, in all the British Colonies, in the Argentine, in Siberia, in Shanghai, in Morocco, and in Tunis. Zionist Federations actively engaged in furthering the principles for which the movement elands, are to be found in all these countries

The supreme body which controls the activities of the Organizations in the different countries consists of delegates elected by the various local Shekel payers (poll lax) by a democratic franchise, and his body meets biennially.

Through the several financial agencies which the Zionist Congress has created to enable it to carry forward its work in Palestine, the Organization and associated bodies have raised and have expended in Palestine since its inception, millions of pounds Notwithstanding the fact that since 1913 no meetings of the Congress have been held the Organization has greatly increased its enrolled membership, and has the support of hundreds of thousands of Jews who sympathise with the aims of the movement, and contribute to its funds Since the war, the centres of political activity have been transferred to London and the United States of America.

In the Allied countries the conduct of the political activities of the Organization has been entrusted to Dr. Chaim Weizmann and M. Nahum Sokolow, members of the Executive. In the United States of America the Provisional Executive Committee for General Zionist Affairs, created al the outbreak of the war, has been replaced by the Zionist Organization of America, the Honorary President of which is Louis D. Brandeis, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Zionists are to be found al the head of all the greater Jewish national institutions which depend upon mass opinion for moral and financial support; and in addition they take a prominent part in all the Jewish National Councils established in the new States in Eastern Europe.


In every part of the world on the Day of Atonement the Jews pray that "all nations may be united by a common bond, so that the will of God may reign supreme throughout the world". In the fulfilment of this prayer, the Jews hope that they will be able to take an honorable place in the new community of Nations. It is their purpose to establish in Palestine a government dedicated to social and national justice; a government, that shall be guided like the community of old by that justice and equality which is expressed in the great precept of our Lawgiver: "There shall be but one law for you and the stranger in the land".

Rothschild (Lord Walter Rothschild).

Nahum Sokolow. Chaim Weizmann.


Julian W. Mack.
Stephen S. Wise.
Harry Friedenwald.
Jacob de Haas.
Mary Fels.
Louis Robison.
Bernard Flexner.


Israel Rosoff.


Nahum Sokolow.
Chaim Weizmann.

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