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Annex A: RAP guidelines for rural water supply and sanitation project evaluation in Nepal

Situational Study


1. To assess the gravity of need for drinking water in terms of seasonal/year round scarcity; quantity available; time and distance (round trip) for collection of water.

2. To explore and understand village cohesiveness and past experiences and records of group/cooperative efforts.

3. To assess the awareness and extent of involvement of the proposed beneficiaries in making a request for water scheme.

4. Rapid appraisal of health conditions of the villagers, in particular children, in terms of common diseases and appearance.


Walk about observation cum survey; mini focus group discussions; informal talks with change agents living in the proposed areas.


1. information on the present water sources,

• distance/time used collecting water
• quality of the water
• system(s)
• condition/operational status
• rough population coverage

2. History and experience of community participation projects for water and other sector agencies

• their success and present condition
• what and how were the strategies, approaches adopted for community participation in the past projects?
• how successful or unsuccessful were these approaches and reasons for the same.

3. Who was involved in the making of the request? How are they involved? Are the different areas/wards and social/ethnic groups involved in filling the request?

4. What are the common diseases in the Village? What is the prevalence/occurrence in an average family?

5. Previous water projects?

• Agency?
• Community participation activities?
• The experience of the villagers about the implementation?
• Present status of operation and maintenance?
• Who is responsible?

Feasibility study: Sociocultural, economic and, health


1. To assess the feasibility of the proposed scheme

2. To establish sociocultural, economic, health and demographic data base

3. To record existing water usage practices and health and to enable appropriate sanitation related behaviour and HE programme, planning of the WS systems and sanitation.

4. To document rural social systems, community power structure and rural technology/technicians for planning the best suitable systems for management, operation or maintenance of the WS and sanitation systems.

5. To explore possible functional link with existing GO and NGOs activities


Basic socio-ethnographic methods will be used in the conduct of the above study. These methods permit detailed recording of the sociocultural context in which all kinds of rural behaviour and practices occur in order to better understand and interpret the behaviour and the expected outcome of the activities to be introduced. The basic socio-ethnographic methods used will be Focus Group discussion, observation, participant observation, informal discussions and use of secondary data.


Field diary, files, village map


2-3 weeks (To be done before the implementation begins).


Training officers/overseers/women workers (if feasible)



Data Collection Technique

Possible Source/s


Population Size Structure by age, sex, social (caste/ ethnicity) groups, household size and growth rate, where possible

Secondary data

Health post

Office records




Social Characteristics Type of household and settlement patterns(clustered or dispersed) by social groups/caste/ethnicity; educational level records



Informal discussions by social groups

key informats



Settlement patterns in relation to existing water sources (if possible, a rough map showing the settlement pattern, existing and potential water sources). Also common land in the community, where taps and wells could possibly be located.

Economic Characteristics


Sources of livelihood

Focus Group

Village groups,



Which group do majority of people belong to?

Appropriate groups, i.e. village leaders, villagers, men and women, various


Farmers by type (share cropping, farming their own land, renting hired labourers, etc) size of land holding

change agents, villagers, extension workers

Village craftsmen


Seasonal work

Unemployment in the village


Existing renewable natural resources



forest (private/public)



Water (river, springs, artisan) tree plantation by the water sources, quality and type of land landslides and erosion



D. HEALTH AND SANITATION BEHAVIOUR: Existing water sources and their use

Survey of existing sources



and their yield measured

observation &


and conditions described.

Water testing


Quality at present sources should be analyzed

Focus group

(Bacteriological tests)


The following things should be studied during the feasibility study:

Existing water sources by use:

• drinking water

• washing, bathing

• cattle watering

• their approximate yield, approximate number and distributions (geographical) of people using the source

• approximate quality of source

• average distance from the households using the source (time used collecting water)

• times of the day when most people use the source

• the condition of protective structure, if any

• ownership and responsibility for maintenance. History of the source, who built it and when?

Water use at household level

Water carried to home

• cooking, drinking

Focus group


• washing, bathing (approx.



• animal watering amounts)



Participant health

Water used outside home

Observation Workers

• washing, bathing

Informal discussions

• animal watering

Health Post with relevant person/s, office records

• industrial & handicraft use(building, brick making, etc.)

Who in the household usually collects water?

Health Behaviour

Understanding of the link between water and diseases. Do people understand?

• polluted water at source

• connection of lack of sanitation and pollution

• spreading of diseases

• household hygiene

Sanitation situation in the village and defecation behaviour

• approximate number and type of latrines in the village

• institutions, schools, health posts, tea shops: do they have latrines?

• different groups (rich/poor/iteral, etc.) and their defecation behaviour

• different influential individuals VHW, school teacher, Family Planning Worker, and their sanitation situation practices?

Cultural restrictions and practices

Special cultural restrictions/ beliefs/practices considering water use and defecation behaviour. In particular, are theresome restrictions preventing village use of latrines, etc.

Focus group discussions,

Villagers of all walks of life, i.e., men, women, rich, poor literate, illiterate, priests, imams, health care practitioners, knowledgeable Brahmins, etc.

Participant observation informal talks

Castes using the same water point?

Men/women working together?

Role and Status of Women

Local laws, regulations, beliefs, and practices regarding water sources

• ownership of the sources

• common place for washing places etc.

Presence or absence of Village Health Care

• practitioners, traditional birth attendants, influential villagers in regard to health problems and services, care, and advice


Leadership structure

• formal influentials leaders

informal talks


villagers influence

Participant observation

Decision-making procedures

Where are the decisions made and discussed:


Who participates?

How often are they held?

What is discussed?


Who initiates the meeting?

How are people informed about the meeting? (chowkidar/katuwal)

What area do they cover?

Indigenous organizations/institutions to regulate/manage village affairs i.e. social, cultural, economic, health and other social and political issues and problems (village chowkidar/katuwal, Guruwa, rural technicians and client patron relationships, etc.)


What are the present services in the village:

• school


village and villagers, change agents

• health post/THCP

Focus group discussion

Village Development Committee

• administrative buildings

• other projects of other sector agencies

- agriculture

- immunization

- population control

Transportation and Communication

Income generation projects - SFDP, PCRW, NGOs

Villagers' Concepts of Health, Illness, and Safe Water

1. Characteristics of a healthy person/child

2. Characteristics of illness

3. What makes one healthy/how to remain healthy?

4. What causes illness (fate, unhygienic practices, evil action, bad spirit, food ...)

5. Safe water is (appearance, taste, source, protection, container)

6. How to make water safe ...

Food Behaviour based on observation, interviews, and group discussion with villagers of all walks of life.

1. Hot food

2. Healthy food

3. Cold food

4. Infant food, frequency, reasons

5. Children's food, frequency, reason

6. Pregnant women:

a. Good food

b. Food avoided and why?

c. Food normally eaten

7. Lactating women:

a. Good food

b. Food avoided and why?

c. Food normally eaten

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