Contents - Previous - Next


Cavdar AO, Arcasoy A, Cin S & Gumus H (1980): Zinc deficiency in geophagia in Turkish children and response to treatment with zinc sulphate. Haematologie 65, 403-408.

Chandra RK (1991): Immunocompetence is a sensitive and functional barometer of nutritional status. Acta Paediatr. Scand Suppl 374, 129-132.

FAO/WHO/UNU (1985): Energy and protein requirements. Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series 724. Geneva: WHO.

Ferro-Luzzi A, Sette S. Franklin MF & James WPT (1992): A simplified approach to assessing adult chronic energy deficiency. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr 46, 173-186.

Garrow JS (1981): Treat obesity seriously - a clinical manual. London: Churchill Livingstone.

Gillespie S & McNeill G (1992): Food, health and survival in India and developing countries. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Gomez F. Ramos-Galvan R. Frenk S. Cravioto JM, Chavez R & Vasquez J (1956): Mortality in second and third degree malnutrition. J. Trop. Pediatr: 2, 77-83.

Gopalan C (1992): Food and Health - McCarrison's prescription endures. Nutr. Health 8, 1-16.

Henry CJK, Rivers JP & Payne PR (1988): Protein and energy metabolism in starvation reconsidered. Eur J. Clin. Nutr 42, 543-549.

James WPT & Schofield EC (1990): Human energy requirements: a manual for planners and nutritionists. FAO/Oxford University Press.

Naidu AN, Neela J & Rao NP (1991): Maternal body mass index and birth weight. Nutr. News, Nat. Inst. Nutr, Hyderabad 12 (2).

Pryer J (1990): Socio-economic aspects of undernutrition and ill health in an urban slum in Bangladesh. PhD thesis, University of London.

Schofield WN, Schofield C & James WPT (1985): Basal metabolic rate - review and prediction, together with an annotated bibliography of source material. Hum. Nutr: Clin. Nutr 39C (Suppl. 1), 1-96.

Shekar M, Habicht J-P & Latham MC (1991): Is positive deviance in growth simply the converse of negative deviance? Food Nutr Bull. 13, 7-11.

Shetty PS & James WPT (1994): Body mass index: a measure of chronic energy deficiency in adults. Rome: FAO.

Williams RB & Mills CF (1970): The experimental production of zinc deficiency in the rat. Br J. Nutr 24, 989-1003.


Scrimshaw: You mention some sort of biochemical indicator that might go along with hormonal change. Do you have any specific candidates in mind?

James: Acute stress induces cortisol production but in conditions of relative energy constraint, my work with Shetty shows that urinary noradrenalin could be a possible marker. With HPLC systems scores of samples could be measured in a day. However, evidence is now emerging that the liver responds to relative energy restraint by producing a series of organic acids as intermediates of carbohydrate metabolism. These have been grouped as gamma lactones; we need to find one which indicates energy deprivation.

Contents - Previous - Next