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BAYLEY, N.: The development of motor abilities during the first three years. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 1, 1936.

BEATON, G.H.: Adaptation to an accommodation of long term low energy intake. A commentary on the conference of energy intake and activity. In: Energy Intake and Activity, pp. 395-403, E. POLLITT, P. AMANTE (Eds.). Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, 1984.

DIETZ, W.H.: Nutrition and obesity. In: Pediatric Nutrition Theory and Practice, pp. 525-538, R.J. GRAND, J. L. STUPHEN, W.H. DIETZ (Eds.). Butterworths, Boston, MA, 1987.

DURNIN J.V.G.A.: Some problems in assessing the role of physical activity in the maintenance of energy balance. In: Energy Intake and Activity, pp. 101-113, E. POLLITT, P. AMANTE (Eds.). Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, 1984.

INCAP: Instituto de Nutricion de Centro America y Panama. Manual de Operacion de la Division de Desarrollo Humano. Vol. II. Guatemala, 1974.

JOOS, S., POLLITT, E.: Nutritional status and behavior. In: Pediatric Nutrition: Theory and Practice, pp. 307-312, R.J. GRAND, J.L. STUPHEN, W.H. DIETZ (Eds.). Butterworths, Boston, MA, 1987.

JOOS, S., POLLITT, E.: Effects of supplementation on behavioral development in children up to the age of two years: A comparison of four studies. In: Malnutrition and Behavior: Critical Assessment of Key Issues, pp. 507-519, J. BROZEK, B. SCHÜRCH (Eds.). Nestle Foundation, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1984.

KUGLER, P.N., SCOTT KELSON, J.A., TURVEY, M.T.: On the control and coordination of naturally developing systems. In: The Development of Movement Control and Co-ordination pp. 5-78, J.A. SCOTT KELSON, J.E. CLARK (Eds.). John Wiley, New York, NY 1982.

LASKY, R.L., KLEIN, R.E., YARBROUGH, C., KALLIO, K.D.: The predictive validity of infants assessments in rural Guatemala. Child Dev., 52, 847-856 (1981).

LEWIS, M., JASKIR, J., ENRIGHT, M.K.: The development of mental abilities in infancy. Intelligence, 10, 321-354 (1986).

MALINA, R.M.: Physical activity and motor development/performance in populations nutritionally at risk. In: Energy Intake and Activity, pp. 285-302, E. POLLITT,, P. AMANTE (Eds.). Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, 1984.

MARTORELL, R., KLEIN, R., DELGADO, H.: Improved nutrition and its effects on anthropometric indicators of nutritional status. Nutr. Rep. Int., 21 (2), 219-229 (1980).

McCALL, R.B.: The development of intellectual functioning in infancy and the prediction of later I.Q. In: Handbook of Infant Development, pp. 707-741, J.D. OSOFSKY (Ed.). John Wiley, New York, NY, 1979.

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POLLITT,, E., AMANTE, P. (Eds.): Energy Intake and Activity. Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, 1984.

SILVA, P.A.: Gross motor development and delays in development in early childhood: assessment and significance. J. Hum. Mov. Studies, 6, 211-226 (1980).

THELEN, E.: The role of motor development in developmental psychology: A view of the past and an agenda for the future. In: Contemporary Topics in Developmental Psychology, pp. 3-33, N. EISENBERG (Ed.). John Wiley, New York, NY, 1987.

THELEN, E., FOGEL, A.: Towards an action-based theory of infant development. In: Action in Social Context. Perspectives on Early Development, pp. 23-63 J.J. LOCKMAN, N.L. HAZEN (Eds.). Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1989.

Discussion (summarized by C.M. Super)

The discussion focused primarily on the unusually strong correlations between motor development in infancy on the one hand, and intellectual ability and educational achievements in childhood and adolescence on the other, and how they might be interpreted. Pollitt suggested that, pending further analysis, it was not possible to distinguish between two possibilities: (1) that motor development served as a marker for powerful covariates, such as family factors, which influenced the outcomes in late adolescence noted here, and (2) that nutrition had a common influence on both infant motor development and later cognitive attainments. A link between nutrition and motor development was found at 15 months, but possible covariates have not yet been explored. It was suggested that motor scores in infancy might reflect an ability to interact with the environment, but this would be different from the pattern typically reported in U.S. and Canadian studies. Pollitt emphasized that these results could not be predicted from findings in well-nourished populations, nor should they be generalized to them. It was commented that this is a good example of how longitudinal correlations tell us as much about a child's environment as they do about the child's development per se.

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