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ANIANSSON, A., ZETTERBERG, C., HEDBERG, B., KOMI, P.V.: Impaired muscle function with aging. A background factor in the incidence of fractures of the proximal end of the femur. Clin. Orth. Rel. Res., 191, 193-200 (1984).

ASMUSSEN, E.: Observations on experimental muscular soreness. Acta Rhum. Scand., 2, 109-116 (1956).

BABIOR, B.M., KIPNES, R.S., CURNUTTE, J.T.: The production by leukocytes of super-oxide, a potential bactericidal agent. J. Clin. Invest., 52, 741-744 (1973).

BAINTON, D.F.: Phagocytic cells: Developmental biology of neutrophils and eosinophils. In: Inflammation: Basic Principles and Clinical Correlates, pp. 265-280, J.I. GALLIN, I.M. GOLDSTEIN, R. SNYDERMAN (Eds.). Raven Press, New York, NY, 1988.

CAMPBELL, W.W., CRIM, M.C., JOSEPH, L.J., YOUNG, V.R., EVANS, W.J.: Protein turnover in young and older men related to fat free mass and muscle. FASEB J., 6, A1942 (1992)

CANNON, J.G., KLUGER, M.J.: Endogenous pyrogen activity in human plasma after exercise. Science, 220, 617-619 (1983).

CANNON, J.G., FIELDING, R.A., FIATARONE, M.A., ORENCOLE, S.F., DINARELLO, C.A. EVANS, W.J.: Interleukin-1b in human skeletal muscle following exercise. Am. J. Physiol., 257, R451-R455 (1989).

CANNON, J.G., ORENCOLE, S.F., FIELDING. R.A., MEYDANI, M., MEYDANI, S.N., FIATARONE, M.A., BLUMBERG, J.B., EVANS, W.J.: Acute phase response in exercise: interaction of age and vitamin E on neutrophils and muscle enzyme release. Am. J. Physiol., 259, R1214-R1219 (1990).

CANNON, J.G., MEYDANI, S.N., FIELDING, R.A., FIATARONE, M.A., MEYDANI, M., FARHANGMEHR, M., ORENCOLE, S.F., BLUMBERG, J.B., EVANS W.J.: Acute phase response in exercise. II. Associations between vitamin E, cytokines, and muscle proteolysis. Am. J. Physiol., 260, R1235-R1240 (1991).

CARRARO, E, STUART, C.A., HARTL, W.H., ROSENBLATT, J. WOLFE, R.R.: Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects. Am. J. Physiol., 259, E470-E476 (1990).

CATHCART, E.P.: The influence of muscle work on protein metabolism. Physiol. Rev., 5, 225-243 (1925).

CIRIELLO, V.M., HOLDEN, W.L., EVANS, W.J.: The effects of two isokinetic training regimens on muscle strength and fiber composition. In: Biochemistry of Exercise, pp. 787 - 793, H.G. KNUTTGEN, J.A. VOGEL, J. POORTMANS (Eds.). Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Champaign, IL, 1983.

COHN, S.H., VARTSKY, D., YASUMURA, S., SAVITSKY, A., ZANZI, I., VASWANI, A., ELLIS, K.J.: Compartmental body composition based on total-body, potassium, and calcium. Am. J. Physiol., 239, E524-E530 (1980).

COLLIANDER, E.B., TESCH, P.A.: Effects of eccentric and concentric muscle actions in resistance training. Acta Physiol. Scand., 140, 31-39 (1990).

DEVLIN, J.T., BRODSKY, I., SCRIMGEOUR, A., FULLER, S., BIER, D.M. Amino acid metabolism after intense exercise. Am. J. Physiol., 258, E249-E255 (1990).

DUAN, C., DELP, M.D., HAYES, D.A., DELP, P.D., ARMSTRONG, R.B.: Rat skeletal muscle minochondrial [Ca2+] and injury from downhill walking. J. Appl. Physiol., 68, 1241-1251 (1990).

DUDELY, G.A., TESCH, P.A., MILLER, M.A., BUCHANAN, M.D.: Importance of eccentric actions in performance adaptations to resistance training. Aviat. Space Environ. Med., 62, 543-550 (1991).

EVANS, W.J.: Exercise and muscle metabolism in the elderly. In: Nutrition and Aging, pp. 170-191, M.L. HUTCHINSON, H.N. MUNRO (Eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1986.

EVANS, W.J., FISHER, E.C., HOERR, R.A., YOUNG, V.R.: Protein metabolism and endurance exercise. Physic Sports Med., 11, 63-72 (1983).

EVANS, W.J., MEREDITH, C.N., CANNON, J.G., DINARELLO, D.A., FRONTERA, W.R., HUGHES, V.A., JONES, B.H., KNUTTGEN, H.G.: Metabolic changes following eccentric exercise in trained and untrained men. J. Appl. Physiol., 61, 1864-1868 (1986).

EVANS, W.J., MEREDITH, C.N.: Exercise and nutrition in the elderly. In: Nutrition, Aging, and the Elderly, pp. 89-126, H.N. MUNRO, D.E. DANFORD (Eds.). Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1989.

EVANS, W.J., ROSENBERG, I.R., THOMPSON, J.: Biomarkers: The Ten Determinants of Aging You Can Control. Simon & Schuster, New York, NY, 1991.

FIATARONE, M.A., EVANS, W.J.: Exercise in the oldest old. Top. Geriatr. Rehab., 5, 63-77 (1990).

FIATARONE, M.A., MARKS, E.C., RYAN, N.D., MEREDITH, C.N., LIPSITZ, L.A., EVANS, W.J. High-intensity strength training in nonagenarians. Effects on skeletal muscle. JAMA, 263, 3029-3034 (1990).

FICK, A., WISCLICENUS, J.: On the origin of muscular power. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 31, 485-503 (1866).

FIELDING, R.A., EVANS, W.J., HUGHES, V.A., MOLDAWER, L.L., BISTRIAN, B.R. The effects of high intensity exercise on muscle and plasma levels of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 482-485 (1986).

FIELDING, R.A., MEREDITH, C.A., O'REILLY, K.P., FRONTERA, W.R., CANNON, J.G., EVANS, W.J.: Enhanced protein breakdown following eccentric exercise in young and old men. J. Appl. Physiol., 71, 674-679 (1991).

FINK, W.J., COSTILL, D.L., VAN HANDEL, W.J.: Leg muscle metabolism during exercise in the heat and cold. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 34, 183-190 (1975).

FISHER, E.C., NELSON, M.E., FFRONTERA, W.R., TURKSOY, R.N., EVANS, W.J: Bone mineral content and levels of gonadotropins and estrogens in amenorrheic running women. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 92, 1232-1236 (1986).

FRIDEN, J., SEGER, J., SJÖSTRÖM, M., EKBLOM, B.: Adaptive response in human skeletal muscle subjected to prolonged eccentric training. Int. J. Sports Med., 4, 177-183 (1983).

FRONTERA, W.R., EVANS, W.J.: Exercise performance and endurance training in the elderly. Top. Geriatr. Rehab., 2, 17-32 (1986).

FRONTERA, W.R., MEREDITH, C.N., O'REILLY, K.P., KNUTTGEN, H.G., EVANS, W.J.: Strength conditioning in older men: skeletal muscle hypertrophy and improved function. J. Appl. Physiol., 64, 1038-1044 (1988).

GERSOVITZ, M. BIER. D., MATTHEWS, D., UDALL, J., MUNRO, H., YOUNG, V.: Dynamic aspects of whole body glycine metabolism: influence of protein intake in young adult and elderly males. Metabolism, 29, 1087-1094 (1980).

GERSOVITZ, M., MUNRO, H., SCRIMSHAW, N., YOUNG, V.: Human protein requirements: assessment of the adequacy of the current recommended dietary allowance for dietary protein in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 35, 6-14 (1982).

GONTZEA, 1., SUTZESCU, P., DUMITRACHE, S.: The influence of muscle activity on nitrogen balance and the need of man for proteins. Nutr. Rep. Int., 10, 35-43 (1974).

GONTZEA, I., SUTZESCU, R., DUMITRACHE, S.: The influence of adaptation to physical effort on nitrogen balance in man. Nutr. Rep. Int., 11, 231-236 (1975).

HARALAMBIE, G., BERG, A.: Serum urea and amino nitrogen changes with exercise duration. Eur. J. Appl. Occup. Physiol., 36, 39-48 (1976).

HIKIDA, R.S., STARON, R.S., HAGERMAN, F.C., SHERMAN, W.M., COSTILL, D.L.: Muscle fiber necrosis associated with human marathon runners. J. Neurol. Sci., 59, 185-203 (1983).

HUGHES, V.A., FIATARONE, M.A., FIEDLING, R.A., KAHN, B.R., FERRA, C.M., SHEPHERD, R. FISHER, E.C., WOLFE, R.R., ELAHI, D., EVANS, W.J.: Aerobic exercise improves glucose homeostasis and increases GLUT 4 levels in skeletal muscle of older subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Am. J. Physiol. In review.

IMAMURA, K., ASHIDA, H., ISHIKAWA, T., FUJII, M.: Human major psoas muscle and sacrospinalis muscle in relation to age: A study by computed tomography. J. Gerontol., 38, 678-681 (1983).

JOHNSTON, R.B.: Monocytes and macrophages. N. Engl. J. Med., 318, 747-752 (1988).

JONES, D.A., NEWHAM, D.J., ROUND, J.M., TOLFREE, S.E.J.: Experimental human muscle damage: morphological changes in relation to other indices of damage. J. Physiol. (London), 375, 435-448 (1986).

KAMPSCHMIDT, R.: Leukocytic endogenous mediator/endogenous pyrogen. In: Infection: the Physiologic and Metabolic Reponses of the Host, pp. 55-74, M.C. POWANDA, P.G. CANONICO (Eds.). Elsevier/North Holland, Amsterdam, 1981.

KLITGAARD, H., MANTONI, M., SCHIAFFINO, S., AUSONI, S., GORZA, L., LAURENT-WINTER, C., SCHNOHR, P., SALTIN, B.: Function, morphology and protein expression of ageing skeletal muscle: a cross-sectional study of elderly men with different training backgrounds. Acta Physiol. Scand., 140, 41-54 (1990a).

KLITGAARD, H. ZHOU, M., SCHIAFFINO, S., BETTO, R., SALVIATI, G., SALTIN, B.: Ageing alters the myosin heavy chain composition of single fibres from human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol. Scand., 140, 55-62 (1990b).

KNAPIK, J., MEREDITH, C., JONES, B., FIELDING, R., YOUNG, V., EVANS, W.: Leucine metabolism during fasting and exercise. J. Appl. Physiol., 70, 43-47 (1991).

KOMI, P.V., BUSKIRK, E.B.: Effect of eccentric and concentric muscle conditioning on tension and eletrical activity of human muscle. Ergonomics, 15, 417-434 (1972).

LARSSON, L.: Histochemical characteristics of human skeletal muscle during aging. Acta Physiol. Scand., 117, 469-471(1983).

LEMON, P.W.R., MULLIN, J.: Effect of initial muscle glycogen levels on protein catabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol., 48, 624-629 (1980).

LEMON, P.W.R., DOLNY, D.G., YARESHESKI, K.E.: Effect of intensity on protein utilization during prolonged exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 16, 151 (1984).

LEXELL, J., HENRIKSSON-LARSEN, K., WIMBLOD, B., SJÖSTRÖM, M.: Distribution of different fiber types in human skeletal muscles: Effects of aging studied in whole muscle cross sections. Muscle Nerve, 6, 588-595 (1983).

MANFREDI, T.G., FIELDING. R.A., O'REILLY, K.P., MEREDITH, C.N., LEE, H.Y., EVANS, W.J.: Serum creating kinase activity and exercise-induced muscle damage in older men. Med. Sci. Sports Excerc., 23, 1028-1034 (1991).

MEREDITH, C.N., FRONTERA, W.R., FISHER, E.C., HERLAND, J.C., EDWARDS, J., EVANS, W.J.: Peripheral effects of endurance training in young and old subjects. J. Appl. Physiol., 66, 2844-2849 (1989a).

MEREDITH, C.N., ZACKIN, M.J., FRONTERA, W.R., EVANS, W.J.: Dietary protein requirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-trained men. J. Appl. Physiol., 66, 2850-2856 (1989b).

MEREDITH, C.N., FRONTERA, W.R., EVANS, W.J.: Body composition in elderly men. Effect of dietary modification during strength training. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. (1992).

MILLWARD, D.J., DAVIES, C.T.M, HALLIDAY, D., WOLMAN, S.L., MATTHEWS, D., RENNIE, M.: Effect of exercise on protein metabolism in humans as explored with stable isotopes. Fed. Proc., 41, 2686-2691 (1982).

NAWABI, M.D., BLOCK, K.P., CHAKRABARTI, M.C., BUSE, M.G.: Administration of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin I to rats activates skeletal muscle branched-chain -keto acid dehydrogenase. J. Clin. Invest., 85, 256-263 (1990).

NELSON, M.E., FISHER, E.C., CATSOS, RD., MEREDITH, C.N., TURKSOY, R.N., EVANS, W.J.: Diet and bone status in amenorrheic runners. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 43, 910-916 (1986).

NEWHAM, D.J., Mc PHAIL, G., MILLS, K.R., EDWARDS, R.H.T.: Ultrastructural changes after concentric and eccentric contractions of human muscle. J. Neurol. Sci., 61, 109-122 (1983).

O'REILLY, K.P., WARHOL, M.J., FIELDING, R.A., FRONTERA, W.R., MEREDITH, C.N., EVANS, W.J.: Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage impairs muscle glycogen repletion. J. Appl. Physiol., 63, 252-256 (1987).

PEARSON, D.R., COSTILL, D.L.: The effects of constant external resistance exercise and isokinetic exercise training on work-induced hypertrophy. J. Appl. Sport Sci. Res., 2, 39-41 (1988).

RENNIE, M.J., HALLIDAY, D., DAVIES, C.T.M., EDWARDS, R.H.T., KRYWAWYCH, P.J., MILLWARD, P.J., MATTHEWS, D.E.: Exercise induced increase in leucine oxidation in man and the effect of glucose. In: Metabolism and Clinical Implications of Branched Chain Amino and Ketoacids, pp. 361-366, M. WALSER, D.H. WILLIAMSON (Eds.). Elsevier/North Holland, New York, NY, 1980.

RENNIE, M.J., EDWARDS, R.H.T., KRYWAWYCH, S., DAVIES, C., HALLIDAY, D., WATERLOW, J.C., MILLWARD, D.J.: Effect of exercise on protein turnover in man. Clin. Sci. Lond., 61, 627-639 (1981).

ROUND, J.M., JONES, D.A., CAMBRIDGE, G.: Cellular infiltrates in human skeletal muscle: exercise induced damage as a model for inflammatory muscle disease? J. Neurol. Sci., 82,1-11 (1987).

SANDIER, R.B.: Muscle strength assessment and the prevention of osteoporosis. J. Am. Geriat. Soc., 37, 1192-1197 (1989).

SMITH, J.K., GRISHAM, M.B., GRANGER, D.N., KORTHUIS, R.J.: Free radical defense mechanisms and neutrophil infiltration in postischemic skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol., 256, H789-H793 (1989).

TARNOPOLSKY, M.A., MacDOUGALL, J.D., ATKINSON, S.A.: Influence of protein intake and training status on nitrogen balance and lean body mass. J. Appl. Physiol, 64, 187-193 (1988).

TARNOPOLSKY, L.J., MacDOUGALL, J.D., ATKINSON, S.A., TARNOPOLSKY, M.A., SUTTON, J.R.: Gender differences in substrate for endurance exercise. J. Appl. Physiol., 68, 302-308 (1990).

TZANKOFF, S.P., NORRIS, A.H.: Longitudinal changes in basal metabolic rate in man. J. Appl. Physiol., 33, 536-539 (1978).

UAUY, R., SCRIMSHAW, N., YOUNG, V.: Human protein requirements: nitrogen balance response to graded levels of egg protein in elderly men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 31, 779-785 (1978).

VIHKO, V., SALMINEN, A., RANTAMAKI, J.: Exhaustive exercise endurance training, and acid hydrolase activity in skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol., 47, 43-50 (1979).

VON LIEBIG, J.: Die Quelle der Muskelkraft. Ann. Chemie Pharmacie, 153, 157-228 (1870).

WARHOL, M.J., SIEGEL, A.J., EVANS, W.J., SILVERMAN, L.M.: Skeletal muscle injury and repair in marathon runners after competition. Am. J. Pathol., 118, 331-339 (1985).

YOUNG, V.: Amino acids and protein in relation to the nutrition of elderly people. Age Ageing, 19, 510-524 (1990).

ZANNI, E., CALLOWAY, D., ZEZULKA, A.: Protein requirements of elderly men. J. Nutr., 109, 513-524 (1979).

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