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AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Committee on Nutrition: Nutritional needs of low-birth-weight infants. Pediatrics, 75, 976-986 (1985).

ALVEAR, J., ARTAZA, C., VIAL, M., GUERRERO, S., MUZZO, S.: Physical growth and bone age of survivors of protein energy malnutrition. Arch. Dis. Child., 61, 257-262 (1986).

ALVEAR, J., VIAL, M., ARTAZA, C.: Crecimiento despuis de desnutrición grave precoz. Rev. Chill Pediatr., 62, 242-247 (1991).

ARIZTIA, A.A., MARTNER, J.G., JARPA, S.Y.: Comunicacion preliminar sobre empleo de insulina en lactantes con detencin del desarrollo. Rev. Chill Pediatr., 9, 682-688 (1969).

ASHWORTH, A.: Growth rates in children recovering from protein calorie malnutrition. Br. 1 Nutr., 23, 835-845 (1969).

ASHWORTH, A.: Ad-lib feeding during recovery from malnutrition. Br. J. Nutr., 51, 968-71 (1976).

AXELSSON, I.E.M., IVARSSON S.A., RAIHA, N.C.R.: Protein intake in early infancy: effects on plasma aminoacid concentrations, insulin metabolism, and growth. Pediatr. Res., 26, 614-617 (1989).

BAXTER, R.C., COWELL, C.T.: Diurnal rhythm of growth hormone-independent binding protein for insuline like growth factors in human plasma. J. Clin. Endocrinol., Metab., 65, 432-440 (1987).

BEARDMORE, J.M., RICHARDS, R.C.: Concentration of epidermal growth factor in mouse milk throughout lactation. J. Endocrinol., 96, 287-292 (1983).

BEAUFRERE, B., PUTET, G., PACHIAUDI, C., SALLE, B.: Whole body protein turnover measured with 13C leucine and energy expenditure in preterm infants. Pediatr. Res., 28, 147-152 (1990).

BELL, G.I., MERRYWEATHER, J.P., SANCHEZ - PESCADOR, R., STEMPIEN. M.M., PRIESTLEY, L., SCOTT, J., RALL, L.B.: Sequence of a cDNA clone encoding human preproinsulin-like growth factor II. Nature, 310, 775-777 (1984).

BERCU, B.B. (Ed.): Basic and Clinical Aspects of Growth Hormone. Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1988.

BERSETH, C.L.: Enhancement of intestinal growth in neonatal rats by epidermal growth factor in milk. Am. J. Physiol. (Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.), 16, G 662-G 665, (1987a).

BERSETH, C.L.: Breast milk-enhanced intestinal and somatic growth in neonatal rats. Biol. Neonate, 51, 53-59 (1987b).

BERSETH, C.L., LICHTENBERG, L.M., MORRIS, Jr., F.H.: Comparison of the gastrointestinal growth promoting effects of rats colostrum and mature milk in newborn rats in vivo. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 37, 52-60 (1983).

BIER. D.M., YOUNG, V.R.: Assessment of whole-body protein - nitrogen - kinetics in the human infant. In: Energy and Protein Needs during Infancy, pp. 107-125, S.J. FOMON, W.C. HEIRD (Eds.). Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1986.

BRENNER, B.M., MEYER, T.W., HOSTETTER, T.H.: Dietary protein intake and the progressive nature of kidney diseases: the role of hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury in the pathogenesis of progressive glomerular sclerosis in aging, renal ablation, and intrinsic renal disease. N. Engl. J. Med., 307, 652-659 (1982).

BRESSON, J.L., NARCY, P., PUTET, G., RICOUR, C., SACHS, C., REY, J.: Energy substrate utilization in infants receiving total parenteral nutrition with different glucose to fat ratios. Pediatr. Res., 25, 645-648 (1989).

BRESSON, J.L., BADER, B., ROCCHICCIOLI, F., MARIOTTI, A., RICOUR, C., SACHS, C., REY, J.: Protein-metabolism kinetics and energy-substrate utilization in infants fed parenteral solutions with different glucose-fat ratios. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 54, 370-376 (1991).

BROOKE, O.G., ALVEAR, J., ARNOLD, M.: Energy retention, energy expenditure and growth in healthy immature infants. Pediatr. Res., 13, 215-220 (1979).

BROOKE, O.G., ALVEAR, J.: Post-prandial metabolism in infants of low birth weight. Hum. Nutr.: Clin. Nutr., 36C, 167-175 (1982).

CARPENTER, G.: Epidermal growth factor is a major growth promoting agent in human milk. Science, 210, 198-199 (1980).

CATZEFLIS, C., SCHUTZ, Y., MICHELI, J.L., WELSCH, C., ARNAUD, M.J., JÉQUIER, E.: Whole body protein synthesis and energy expenditure in very low-birth-weight infants. Pediatr. Res., 19, 679-687 (1985).

CAUDERAY, M., SCHUTZ, Y., MICHELI, J.L., CALAME, A., JÉQUIER, E.: Energy-nitrogen balances and protein turnover in small and appropriate for gestationel age low birthweight infants. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 42, 125-136 (1987).

CHAVEZ, N., REY, A., ALVEAR, J., LACASSIE, Y., UAUY, R.: Factors conditioning the nutritional recovery (NR) of marasmic infants. Pediatr. Res., 14, 70 (Abstr.) (1980).

CHESSEX, P., REICHMAN, B.L., VERELLEN, G.J.E., PUTET, G., SMITH, J.M., HELM, T., SWYER, P.R.: Influence of postnatal age, energy intake, and weight gain on energy metabolism in the very low-birth-weight infant. J. Pediatr., 99, 761-776 (1983).

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DAUGHADAY, W.H.: Hypoglycemia in patients with non islet cell tumors. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Amer., 18, 91-101 (1989).

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DEMBINSKY, A.B., JOHNSON, L.R.: Effect of epidermal growth factor on the development of rat gastric mucosa. Endocrinology, 116, 90-94 (1985).

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DENNE, S.C., KARN, C.A., LIECHTY, E.A.: Effect of non-protein substrate on glucose and protein metabolism in newborns. Pediatr. Res. (Abstr.) 29, 1748-294A (1991a).

DENNE, S.C., KARN, C.A., LIECHTY, E.A.: Effect of enteral vs. parenteral feeding on leucine kinetics and fuel utilization in premature newborns. Pediatr. Res. (Abstr.), 29, 1749:294A (1991b).

DENNE, S.C., ROSSI, E.M., KALHAN, S.C.: Leucine kinetics during feeding in normal newborns. Pediatr. Res., 30, 23-27 (1991c).

D'ERCOLE, A. J., APPLEWHITE, G.T., UNDERWOOD, L.E.: Evidence that somatomedin is synthesized by multiple tissue in the fetus. Dev. Biol., 75, 315-328 (1980).

DUFFY, B., GUNN, T., COLLINGE, J., PENCHARZ, P.: The effect of varying protein quality and energy intake on the nitrogen metabolism of parenterally fed low birthweight (< 1600 g) infants. Pediatr. Res., 15, 1040-1044 (1981).

EMLER, C.A., SCHALCH, D.S.: Nutritionally-induced changes in hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) gene expression in rats. Endocrinology, 120, 832-834 (1987).

FAO/WHO/UNU: Energy and protein requirements. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Meeting. Technical Report Series No. 724. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1985.

FISHER, D.A.: Catch up growth in hypothyroidism. N. Engl. J. Med., 318, 632-634 (1988).

FIELD, C.R., SCHOELLER, D.A., BROWN, K.H.: Body composition of children recovering from severe protein energy malnutrition at two rates of catch up growth. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 50, 1266-75 (1989a).

FIELD, C.R., SCHOELLER, D.A., BROWN, K.H.: A new model for predicting energy requirements of children during catch-up growth developed using doubly labeled water. Pediatr. Res., 25, 502-508 (1989b).

FLOMBAUM, C.D., BERNER, Y.N.: TPN-induced catch up growth in a 22-y-old male with radiation enteritis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 50, 1341-1347 (1989).

FOMON, S.J. (Ed.): Voluntary food intake and its regulation. In: Infant Nutrition, Second edition, pp. 44-55. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1967.

FOMON, S.J., HEIRD, W.C. (Eds.): Energy and Protein Needs during Infancy. Academic Press, New York, NY, 1986.

GEORGIEFF, M.K., ZEMPEL, C.E., CHANG, P.N.: Catch-up growth, muscle and fat accretion, and body proportionality of infants one year after newborn intensive care. J. Pediatr., 114, 288-292 (1989).

GINSBURG, B.E., LINDBLAD, B.S., LUNDSJÖ, A., PERSSON, B.: Plasma valine and urinary C-peptide in breast-fed and artificially fed infants up to 6 months of age. Acta Paediatr. Scand., 73, 213-217 (1984).

GOODMAN, H.M., GRICHTING, G., COIRO, V.: In: Human Growth Hormone, pp. 499 - 512, S. RAITI, R.A. TOLMON (Eds.). Plenum Press, New York, NY, 1980.

GRAHAM, G.G.: The later growth of malnourished infants; effects of age, severity and subsequent diet. In: Calorie Deficiencies and Protein Deficiencies, pp. 301-316, R.A. McCANCE, E.M. WIDDOWSON (Eds.). Churchill Ltd., London, 1968.

GRAHAM, G.G., ADRIANZEN, B.T.: Late catch up growth after severe infantile malnutrition. J. Hopkins Med. J., 131, 204-210 (1972).

GRANT, J., DENNE, S.C.: Effect of bolus vs continuous feedings on energy expenditure in premature newborns. Pediatr. Res. (in press).

GULER, H.P., ZAPF, J., FROESCH, E.R.: Short term metabolic effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I in healthy adults. N. Engl. J. Med., 317, 137-140 (1987).

HACK, M., MERKATZ, I.R., McGRATH, S.K., JONES, P.K., FANAROFF, A.A.: Catch-up growth in very-low-birth-weight infants: clinical correlates. Am. J. Dis. Child., 138, 370-375 (1984).

HACK, M., BRESLAU, N., WEISSMAN, B., ARAM, D., KLEIN, N., BORAWSKI, E.: Effect of very low birth weight and subnormal head size on cognitive abilities at school age. N. Engl. J. Med., 325:4, 231-237 (1991a).

HACK, M., HORBAR, J.D., MALLOY, M.H., TYSON, J.E., WRIGHT, E., WRIGHT, L.: Very low birth weight outcomes of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Network. Pediatrics, 87, 587-97 (1991b).

HALL, K., SARE, V.R.: Somatomedin levels in childhood, adolescence and adult life. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 13, 91-112 (1984).

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HEIRD, W.C., SCHWARZ, S.M., HANSEN, I.H.: Colostrum induced enteric mucosal growth in beagle puppies. Pediatr. Res., 18, 512-515 (1984).

HEIRD, W.C., KASHYAP, S.: Protein and energy requirements of low birth weight infants. Acta Paediatr. Scand. (Suppl.)., 351, 13-23 (1989).

HELLERSTEIN, S., HOLLIDAY, M.A., GRUPE, W.E., FINE, R.N., FENNELL, R.S., CHESNEY, R.W., CHAN, J.C.M.: Nutritional management of children with chronic renal failure. Pediatr. Nephrol., 1,195-211(1987).

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HILL, D.J, MILNER, R.D.: Insulin as a growth factor. Pediatr. Res., 19, 879-86 (1985).

Ho, K.Y., VELDHUIS, J., JOHNSON, M.L. et al.,: Fasting enhances growth hormone secretion and amplifies the complex rhythms of growth hormone secretion in man. J. Clin. Invest., 81, 968-975 (1988).

HUMBEL, R.E.: Insulin like growth factors somatomedins and multiplication-stimulating activity chemistry. In: Hormonal Proteins and Peptides, pp. 57-59, C.H. LI (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, NY, 1984.

ISAKSSON, O.G.P., LINDAHL, A., NILSSEN, A., ISGAARD, J.: Mechanism of the stimulatory effect of growth hormone on longitudinal bone growth. Endocrinol. Rev., 8, 426-438 (1987).

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JACKSON, A.A: Optimizing amino acid and protein supply and utilization in the newborn. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 48, 293-301(1989).

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JACKSON, A.A., WOOTTON, S.A.: The energy requirements of growth and catch-up growth. In: Activity, Energy Expenditure and Energy Requirements of Infants and Children, pp. 185-214, N.S. SCRIMSHAW, B. SCHÜRCH (Eds.). IDECG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 1990.

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