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Alcorta, L., The Impact of New Technologies on Scale in Manufacturing Industry: Issues and Evidence, World Development, 22 (5), May 1994.

Amdi, I.E.S., Government Policy and Assistance in the Development of Technological Capacity of the Metal-working Cottage Sector in Benue State of Nigeria, Zaria, Nigeria, Department of Political Science, Ahmadu Bello University (n.d.).

Arrow, K., The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing, Review of Economic Studies, June 1962.

Badiane, O., Macroeconomic Policies and Inter-country Trade in West Africa, IFPRI, Washington, D.C., 1992.

Bagchi, A.K., Public Intervention and Industrial Restructuring in China India and the Republic of Korea, Geneva, IL-ARTEP, 1987.

Balassa, B. and Bauwens, L., Changing Trade Patterns in Manufactured Goods, Amsterdam, North-Holland, 1988.

Baldwin, R.E., A Critique of Infant Industry Protection, Journal of Political Economy, 17, 1969.

Baldwin, R.E., Review of Theoretical Developments on Regional Integration. Paper presented at the first Project Workshop on Regional Integration and Trade Liberalization in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi, 2 4 December 1993.

Baumol, W.J., Panzar, J.C. and Willig, R. D., Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industrial Structure, New York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1982.

Bhagwati, J.N., The World System at Risk London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1991.

Bhagwati, J.N. and Srinivasan, T.N., Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: India, NBER, New York, Columbia University Press, 1975.

Bhalla, A., James, D. and Stevens, Y. (eds), Blending New and Traditional Technologies: Case Studies, Dublin, ILO, Tycooley, 1984.

Bozeman, B. and Link, A.N., Investments in Technology: Corporate Strategies and Public Policy Alternatives, New York, Praeger, 1983.

Brander, J.A., Intra-industry Trade in Identical Commodities, Journal of International Economies, 11, 1981.

Brander, J.A. and Krugman, P.A., A Reciprocal Dumping Model of International Trade, Journal of International Economics 1983.

Brown, M.B. and Tiffen, P., Short Changed: Africa and World Trade, London, Pluto Press, 1992.

Browne, J., Dubois, D., Rathmill, K., Sethi, S.P. and Stecke, K.E., Classification of Flexible Manufacturing Systems, The FMS Magazine, April 1984.

Buckley, P. and Casson, M., The Future of the Multinational Enterprise, London, Macmillan, 1976.

Buckley, P. and Casson, M., The Optimal Timing of a Foreign Investment, Economic Journal, 91 1981.

Cantwell, J.A., Technological Innovations and Multinational Corporations, Oxford, Blackwell, 1989.

Carliner, G., Industrial Policy for Emerging Industries, in Krugman, 1986.

Carlsson, B., Industrial Dynamics: an overview, in Carlsson, B. (ed.), Industrial Dynamics: Technological Organizational and Structural Changes in Industries and Firms, Studies in Industrial Organization, Vol. 10, Boston etc., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989.

CASTAFRICA II: Second Conference of Ministers responsible for the Application of Science and Technology to Development in Africa, Final Report, July, 1987.

Caves, R., International Trade and Industrial Organization: Introduction, Journal of Industrial Economics, 29, 1980.

CBI, Footwear: A Survey of the Netherlands and Other Major Markets in the EC, Rotterdam, CBI, 1990.

CBI, Household and Furnishing Textiles: A Survey of the Netherlands and Other Major Markets in the European Community, Rotterdam, CBI, January 1991a.

CBI, Active Sportwear: A Survey of the Netherlands and Other Major Markets in the European Community, Rotterdam, CBI, September 1991b.

Chandler, A.D., Scale and Scope Cambridge, Mass., The Belknap Press and Harvard University Press, 1990.

Colclough, C., Structuralism versus Neo-liberalism: An Introduction, in Colclough and Manor (1991).

Colclough, C. and Manor, J. (eds), States or Markets? Neo-liberalism and the Development Policy Debate, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1991.

Cooper, C., Are Innovation Studies on Industrialized Economies Relevant to Technology Policy in Developing Countries?, Maastricht, INTECH Working Paper, No. 3, 1991.

Cornwall, J., Modern Capitalism: Its Growth and Transformation, London, St. Martin's Press, 1977.

David, P., Technology Resource Endowments Property Rights and Trade: An Open Developing Country's Viewpoint Stanford, Center for Economic Policy Research, No. 278, December 1991.

Debreu, G., The Coefficient of Resource Utilization, Econometrica 19(3), July 1951.

Dixit, A.K and Norman, V., Theory of International Trade Cambridge, Nisbet, 1980.

Dixit, A.K. and Stiglitz, J., Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity, American Economic Review, 67, 1977.

Dosi, G., Perspectives on Evolutionary Theory, Science and Public Policy, 18 (6), December 1991.

Dosi, G., Pavitt, K. and Soete, L., The Economics of Technical Change and International Trade, London, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1990.

Dussauge, P., Hart, S. and Ramanantsoa, B., Strategic Technology Management, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons, 1992.

Enos, J.L., The Creation of Technological Capability in Developing Countries, London, Pinter, 1991.

Ethier, W.J., Internationally Decreasing Costs and World Trade, Journal of International Economics, 9, 1979.

Ethier, W.J., National and International Returns to Scale in the Modern Theory of International Trade, American Economic Review 72, 1982.

Evans, D. Comparative Advantage and Growth: Trade and Development in Theory and Practice Hemel Hempstead, Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989.

Evans. D., Visible and Invisible Hands in Trade Policy Reforms, in Colclough and Manor, 1991.

Fagerberg, J., International Competitiveness, Economic Journal, 98 (391) 1988.

Farell, M.J., The Measurement of Productive Efficiency, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, series A, General, 120 (3), 1957.

Fransman, M., Biotechnology-generation Diffusion and Policy: An Interpretive Survey, INTECH Working Paper, No. 1, Maastricht, 1991.

Fransman, M. and King, J., (eds), Technological Capability in the Third World, London, Macmillan, 1984.

Freeman, C. and Hagedoorn, J., Catching up or Falling behind: Patterns in International Inter-Firm Technology Partnering World Development. 22 (5). May 1994,

Greenway, D., New Trade Theories and Developing Countries, in Bala-subramanyam, V.N. and Lall, S. (eds), Current Issues in Development Economics, London, Macmillan, 1991.

Griliches, Z., (ed.), R&D: Patents and Productivity, Chicago and London, University of Chicago Press, 1984.

Grossman, G.M., Strategic Export Promotion: a Critique, in Krugman, 1986.

Grossman, G.M. and Helpman, E., Product Development and International Trade, Journal of Political Economy, 97, 1989.

Grossman, G.M. and Helpman, E., Trade Innovation and Growth, American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, May 1990a.

Grossman, G.M. and Helpman, E., Comparative Advantage and Long-run Growth, American Economic Review, 80, 1990b.

Handousa, H., Nishimiau, M. and Page, J.M. Jr., Productivity Change in Egyptian Public Sector Industries after the 'Opening', 1973-79, Journal of Development Economics, 20, 1986.

Haque, I.U., International Competitiveness: Public Sector/Private Sector Interface. In Haque, I.U. (ed.), International Competitiveness: Interaction of the Public and Private Sectors collected papers from an EDI policy seminar held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, 18-21 April, 1990.

Havrylyshyn, O. and Civan, E., Intra-industry Trade among Developing Countries, Journal of Development Economics, 18 1985.

Helpman, E., International Trade in the Presence of Product Differentiation, Economies of Scale and Monopolistic Competition, Journal of International Economics, 11, 1981.

Helpman, E. and Krugman, P., Market Structure and Foreign Trade: Increasing Returns Imperfect Competition and the International Economy, Brighton, Wheatsheaf, 1985.

Herbert-Copley, B., Technical Change in African Industry: Reflections on IDRC Supported Research, Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 13 (2), 1992.

Hiey, P.J., Stabilization and Adjustment Policies and Programmes WIDER Country Study 16, Helsinki, 1988.

Holmstrom, B.R. and Tirole, J., The Theory of the Firm, in Schmalensee, R. and Willig, R.D. (eds), Handbook of Industrial Organization, Amsterdam and New York, North-Holland, 1989.

Husain, I., Structural Adjustment and Long-term Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. In van de Hooven, R. and van de Kraaj, F., (eds), Structural Adjustment and Beyond in Sub-Saharan Africa, London, James Curry, 1994.

ITC, Supply and Demand Surveys: Indicative Value of Imports and Export Trade in Selected Products for Member Countries of the PTA (1981-85), Geneva, ITC/UNCTAD/GATT, December 1985.

ITC, Cocoa: Traders Guide, Geneva International Trade Centre, 1987.

Jacobsson, S. and Alam, G., Liberalization and Industrial Development in the Third World: A Comparison of the Indian and South Korean Engineering Industries, New Delhi, Sage, 1994.

James, J., Microelectronics and the Third World: An Integrative Survey of Literature, INTECH Working Paper, 2, Maastricht, 1991.

Kaldor, M., The Case for Regional Policies, Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 17, 1970.

Kaldor, M., What is Wrong with Economic Theory?, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 89, 1975.

Kaldor, N., The Effect of Devaluations on Trade in Manufactures. In Further Essays on Applied Economics, London, Duckworth, 1978.

Kaplinsky, R., Firm Size and Technical Change in a Dynamic Context. In Freeman, C. (ed.), The Economics of Innovation Aldershot, E. Elgar, 1990.

Keller, R., Technological Capability and Development: A Study of India and Korea Nationalekonomiska Institutionen, Handelshogskolan vid Goteborgs Universitet, Memorandum No. 156, Göteborg, 1991.

Kendrick, J.W. and Grossman, E.S., Productivity in the United States: Trends and Cycles Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

Kierzkowski, H. (ed.), Monopolistic Competition and International Trade, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1984.

Kierzkowski, H., Recent Advances in Trade Theory: A Selected Survey, Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 3 (1) 1987.

Killick, T., Explaining Africa's Post-independence Development Experiences. Paper presented at the Second Biennial Conference on African Economic Issues, Abidjan, 13-15 October 1992.

Koester, U. and Thomas, M., Agricultural Trade among Malawi Tanzania Zambia and Zimbabwe, IFPRI, Washington, D.C., February 1992.

Koopmans, T.C., An Analysis of Production as an Efficient Combination of Activities. In Koopmans, T.C., (ed.), Activity Analysis Production and Allocation Cowles Commission for Research in Economics, Monograph No. 13, New York, John Wiley, 1951.

Krugman, P.R., A Model of Innovation, Technology Transfer and the World Distribution of Income, Journal of Political Economy, 87, 1979.

Krugman, P., Scale Economies, Product Differentiation and the Pattern of Trade, American Economic Review, 70, 1980.

Krugman, P.R., Import Protection as Export Promotion, in Kierzkowski, 1984.

Krugman, P.R. (ed.), Strategic Trade Policy and the New International Economics, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 1986.

Krugman, P.R., Increasing Returns and the Theory of International Trade. In Bewley, T. (ed.), Advances in Economic Theory, Cambridge, 1987.

Krugman, P.R., New Trade Theory and the Less Developed Countries, in Calvo, C., Findlay, R., Kowi, P. and Braga de Macedo, J., (eds.), Debt Stabilization and Development: Essays in Memory of Carlos Alejandro, Oxford, Blackwell, 1989.

Lall, S., Building Industrial Competitiveness in Developing Countries, Paris, OECD, 1990.

Lall, S., Navaretti, G.B., Teitel, S. and Wignaraja. G., Technological Capabilities and Industrial Development in Ghana. Study prepared for the World Bank, Washington, D.C., March 1993.

Lancaster, R., Variety Equity and Efficiency, New York, Columbia University Press, 1979.

Lancaster, R., Intra-industry Trade under Perfect Monopolistic Competition, Journal of International Economics, 10, 1980.

Lecraw, D., Direct Investment by Firms from Less Developed Countries, Oxford Economic Papers, 1977.

Lecraw, D., Technological Activities of LDC-based Multinationals, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 458, November 1981.

Leontief, W.W., Studies in the Structure of the American Economy, New York, Oxford University Press, 1953.

Levy, B., Transactions Costs, the Size of Firms and Industrial Policy: Lessons from a Comparative Case Study of the Footwear Industry in Korea and Taiwan, Journal of Development Economics, 32 (1/2), November, 1990.

Levy, B. and Kuo, Wen-Jeng, The Strategic Orientations of Firms and the Performance of Korea and Taiwan in Frontier Industries: Lessons from Comparative Case Studies of Keyboard and Personal Computer Assembly, World Development 19 (4), April 1991.

Lieberman, I., Industrial Restructuring Policy and Practice, Research and Policy Series, Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1990.

Linder, S.B., An Essay on Trade and Transformation, Stockholm, Almquist and Wikell, 1961 (reprinted New York, Garland, 1983).

Link, A.N., Technology Change and Productivity Growth, Chur and London, Harwood Academic Publishers, 1987.

Lipton, M., Market Relaxation and Agricultural Development, in Colclough and Manor, 1991.

Lovell, K.C.A., Production Frontiers and Productive Efficiency, in Fried, Harold O., Lovell, K.C.A. and Schmidt, Shelton S., (eds) The Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications, Oxford, etc., Oxford University Press, 1993.

Mankiw, G., Romer, D. and Weil, D., A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107, 1992.

Mody, A. and Wheeler, D., Automation and World Competition: New Technologies Industrial Location and Trade, Basingstoke and London, Macmillan, 1990.

Morawetz, D., Why the Emperor's New Clothes Are Not Made in Colombia: A Case Study in Latin American and East Asian Manufactured Exports, New York, Oxford University Press, 1981.

Mytelka, L.K.. Strategic Partnerships: States Firms and International Competition, London, Pinter and Cranbury, NJ, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1991.

Ndela, D. B., Kaliyathi, J.W.E., Mutungwazi, D. and Zwizwai, B.M., A Study of the Transfer of Technology and Technology Acquisition in the Metals and Metal Goods Sector in Zimbabwe, in East Africa Technology Policy Studies Network (EATPS), Technology Policy Studies in Eastern and Southern Africa, Nairobi, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 1990.

Nelson, R., The Role of Firm Differences in an Evolutionary Theory of Technical Advance, Science and Public Policy, 18 (6) December 1991.

Nelson, R., Recent Writings on Competitiveness: Boxing the Compass, California Management Review, 34, (2), Winter 1992.

Nelson, R. and Winter, S., An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, Cambridge, Mass., Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982.

North, Douglass C., Economic Performance through Time, American Economic Review, 84 (3), June 1994.

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OECD, New Forms of Investment in Developing Country Industries: Mining Petrochemicals, Automobiles, Textiles Food, by Charles Oman in collaboration with others, Paris, Development Centre of the OECD, 1989.

OECD, Technology and Productivity: The Challenge for Economic Polity, Paris, OECD, 1991.

OECD, Technology and the Economy: The Key Relationships, Paris, OECD, 1992a.

OECD, Information Networks and New Technologies: Opportunities and Policy Implications for the 1990s, Information Computer Communications Policy, No. 30, Paris, OECD, 1992b.

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Pack, H., Productivity and Industrial Development in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Development, 21 (1), 1993.

Pack, H. and Westphal, L.E., Industrial Strategy and Technological Change: Theory versus Reality, Journal of Development Economics, 22, 1986.

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Pavitt, K. and Patel, P., Technological Strategies of the World's Largest Companies, Science and Public Policy, 18 (6), December 1991

Peng, Martin Khor Kok, The End of the Uruguay Round and Third World Interests, South Letter Winter 1993/Spring 1994.

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