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Technology and innovation in the international economy

Table of Contents

Edited by
Charles Cooper

Director, United Nations University
Institute for New Technologies
Maastricht, The Netherlands

Edward Elgar
United Nations University Press

United Nations University Institute for New Technologies, 1994.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without the prig; permission of the publisher.

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Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
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Edward Elgar Publishing Company
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United Nations University Press
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Technology and Innovation in the International Economy
I. Cooper, Charles

Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data
Technology and innovation in the international economy / edited by Charles Cooper. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references.

1. Technological innovations-Developing countries.
2. Technological innovations-Economic aspects-Developing countries.
3. Technological innovations-Social aspects-Developing countries. I. Cooper, Charles, 1936-T173.8. T4236 1994 338.9'27-dc20


ISBN 1 85898 027 5

Printed in Great Britain at the University Press, Cambridge




1. Relevance of innovation studies to developing countries

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Innovation and technological change
1.3 Implications for developing countries

1.3.1 Innovation studies and the accumulation of technological capabilities
1.3.2 Trade and technology

1.4 Concluding remarks

1.4.1 The relevance of innovation studies
1.4.2 Some general issues


2. Biotechnology: Generation, diffusion, and policy

2.1 Introduction
2.2 The generation of biotechnology: Invention and innovation

2.2.1 The scientific base
2.2.2 The technologies
2.2.3 The evolution of biotechnological knowledge
2.2.4 Appropriating the rent from biotechnological knowledge
2.2.5 The role of government

2.3 Economic effects of biotechnology

2.3.1 Introduction
2.3.2 A survey of some literature
2.3.3 The need for a more general approach

2.4 Implications for the third world

2.4.1 Introduction
2.4.2 A survey of some literature
2.4.3 Preconditions and constraints on third world entry and desirable patterns of specialization
2.4.4 An illustrative case study: cuba's entry into new biotechnology
2.4.5 Biotechnology and information/communication technology

2.5 Recent additions to the literature
2.6 Towards a general research agenda

2.6.1 Evolution of biotechnology in industrialized countries
2.6.2 Biotechnology policies in third world countries
2.6.3 Socioeconomic effects of biotechnology

Annotated bibliography
For further reading

3. Microelectronics and the third world

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Patterns of adoption and diffusion in the third world

3.2.1 Supply-side factors
3.2.2 Demand-side factors

3.3 Impacts of microelectronics

3.3.1 Sectoral versus economy-wide impacts on output and employment
3.3.2 Impact of adoption on non-adopters of new technologies
3.3.3 Acquisition of technological capabilities
3.3.4 Applications of technological capabilities

3.4 Policy implications and future research directions

3.4.1 Normative aspects of policy formulation: 'What governments ought to do'

For further reading