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Abujamin, A.. S. Abujamin, and U. Kurnia, 1984. Soil and crop management practices for erosion control. Pembr. Pen. Tanah Dan Pupuk 3: 7 12.

Abujamin, S., A. Abdurachman, and M. Suwardjo. 1984. Contour grass strips as low cost conservation practice. In Proceedings Soil Erosion and Its Countermeasures. 11 19 November 1984, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Abujamin, S., A. Abujamin, and U. Kurnia, 1983. Permanent grass strips as one of soil conservation methods. Pembr. Pen. Tanah Dan Pupuk 1: 16 20.

Alegre, J.C., and P.A. Sanchez, 1991. Central continuous cropping experiment in Yurbilaguas: Y-101. Pp. 249-251 in TROPSOIL Technical Report, 1988-1989. Raleigh, N.C.: TROPSOIL Management Entity, North Carolina State University.

Anderson, A.B., 1990. Deforestation in Amazonia: dynamics, causes, and alternatives. Pp. 3 23 in Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps Toward Sustainable Use of the Amazon Rain Forest, A.B. Anderson (ed). New York: Columbia University Press.

Andriesse, J.P., and R.M. Schelhaas. 1987. A monitoring study of nutrient cycles in soils used for shifting cultivation under various climatic conditions in tropical Asia. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 19: 285-332.

Asabere, P.K., 1987. Attempts at sustained yield management in the tropical high forests of, Ghana. Pp. 47 70 in Natural Management of Tropical Moist Forest. F. Mergen and J. Vincent (eds). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

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Beets. W.C.. 1990. Raising and Sustaining Productivity of Small Holder Farming Systems in the Tropics. Alkemaar, Holland: Ag. Be Publishers.

Bonell, M., M.M. Hutschmidt, and J.S. Gladwell (eds), 1993. Hydrology and Water Management in the Humid Tropics: Hydrological Research Issues and Strategies for Water Management. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 500 pp.

Brown, S., A.J.R. Gillespie, and A.E. Lugo, 1989. Biomass estimation methods for tropical forest with applications to forest inventory data. Forest Sci. 35: 881-902.

Brown, S., A.E. Lugo, and L.R. Iverson, 1992. Processes and lands for sequestering carbon in the tropical forest landscape. Water, Air, Soil Pollution 64: 139 155.

Buschbacher, R., 1990. Natural forest management in the humid tropics: ecological, social, and economic considerations. Ambio 19(5): 253 258.

Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), 1989. Sustainable Agricultural Production Final Implications for International Research. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

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CGIAR, 1990b. Sustainable Agricultural Production. Final Report of the CGIAR Committee. MT/90f 18. Presented at the CGIAR meeting, The Hague, Netherlands, 21-25 May 1990.

Crutzen, P.J., and M.O. Andreae, 1990. Biomass burning in the tropics: impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. Science 250: 1669 1678.

Denevan, W.M., J.M. Treacy, J.B. Alcorn. C. Padoch, J. Denslow, and S. Flores Pairan, 1984. Indigenous agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon: Bora Indian management of swidden fallows. Interciencia 9(6): 346 357.

Detwiler, R.P., 1986. Land use change and the global carbon cycle: the role of tropical soils. Biogeochemistry 2: 67-93.

Detwiler, R P.. and C.A.S. Hall, 1988a. Tropical forests and the global carbon cycle. Science 239: 42-47.

Dctwiler, R.P., and C.A.S. Hall, 1988b. The global carbon cyclic. Letter. Science 241: 1738-1739.

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Ehui, S.K., and T.W. Hertel, 1989. Deforestation and agricultural productivity in the Côte d'Ivoire. Amer. J. Agric. Econ. 71: 703-711.

Ehui, S.K., and T.W. Hertel, 1992a. Testing the impact of deforestation on aggregate agricultural productivity. Agric. Ecosystems Envir. 38: 205-218.

Ehui, S.K., and T.W. Hertel, 1992b. Measuring the Value of Marginal Forest Conservation in Côte d'Ivoire. Draft Paper. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Livestock Center for Africa.

Evans, J., 1982. Plantation Forestry in the Tropics. Oxford: Clarendon.

Ewel, J., C. Berish. B. Brown, N. Price, and J. Raich, 1981. Slash and burn impacts on a Costa Rican wet forest site. Ecology 60: 816-829.

FAO, 1982. FAO Forestry Paper 30 and 37. Rome: FAO.

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Fearnside. P.M., 1983. Development alternatives in the Brazilian Amazon: an ecoIogical evaluation. Interciencia 8(2): 65- 78.

Fearnside, P.M., 1986. Human Carrying Capacity of the Brazilian Rain Forest. New York: Columbia University Press.

Fearnside, P.M., 1987. Rethinking continuous cultivation in Amazonia. BioScience 37(3): 209 214.

Ghuman, B.S., and R. Lal. 1987. Effects of partial clearing on micro-climate in a humid tropical forest. Agric. and Forest Met. 40: 17-29.

Ghuman. B.S., and R. Lal, 1989. Soil temperature effects of biomass burning in windrows after clearing a tropical rainforest. Field Crops Res. 22: 1 -10.

Ghuman, B.S.. and R. Lal. 1990. Nutrient addition into soil by leaves of Cassia siamea and Gliricidia sepium grown on an Ultisol in southern Nigeria. Agroforestry Systems 10: 131-133.

Ghuman, B.S., and R. Lal, 1991. Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics 11. Soil chemical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 184 Ids.

Ghuman, B.S.. and R. Lal, 1992. Effects of soil wetness at the time of land clearing on physical properties and crop response on an Ultisol in southern Nigeria. Soil and Tillage Res. 22: 1-11.

Ghuman, B.S., R. Lal, and W. Shearer, 1991. Land clearing and use in the humid Nigerian tropics. In Soil physical properties. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55: 178-183.

Gomez-Pompa, A., 1987a. On Maya silviculture. Mexican Studies 3(1): 1-17.

Gomez-Pompa. A., 1987b. Tropical deforestation and Maya silviculture: an ecological paradox. Tulane Stud. Zool. Bot. 25: 19-37.

Goodland, R.. 1991. Tropical Deforestation: Solutions, Ethics and Religion. Environment Working Paper No. 43. Washington. D.C.: World Bank.

Grainger, A.. 1991. The Tropical Rain Forests and Man. New York: Columbia University Press.

Harwood, R.R., 1987. Agroforestry and mixed farming systems. Pp. 273-301 in Ecological Development in the Humid Tropics: Guidelines for Planners, A.E. Logo. J. R. Clark, and R. D. Child (eds)). Morrilton, Ark.: Winrock International.

Hauser, S., and B.T. Kang. 1993. Nutrient dynamics. maize yield and soil organic matter in alley cropping with Leucaena leucocephala. Pp. 215-229 in Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx(eds). U.K.: J. Wiley & Sons.

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Houghton, R.A., 1990a. The global effects of tropical deforestation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24:414-422.

Houghton, R.A., 1990b. The future role of, tropical forests in affecting the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere. Ambio 19(4): 204-209.

Houghton, R.A.. 1991. Tropical deforestation and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Climatic Change 19: 99-118

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Hulugalle. N.R., R. Lal, and C.H.H. ter Kuile, 1984. Soil physical changes and crop root growth following different methods of land clearing in western Nigeria. Soil Sci. 138: 179-179.

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Kang, B.T., L. Reynolds, and A.N. Att-Krah, 1990. Alley farming. Advances Agron. 43: 315-359.

Kang, B.T., A.C.B.M. van der Kruijs, and D.C. Cooper, 1989. Alley cropping for food production. Pp. 16-26 in Alley Farming in the Humid and Sub-humid Tropics, B.T. Kang and L. Reynolds (eds)). Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.

Kang, B.T., G.F,. Wilson, and L. Spiken 1981. Alley cropping maize with Icucaena hi southern Nigeria. Plant Soil 63: 165-179.

Lal. R.. 1976. Soil erosion problems on Alfisols in western Nigeria and their control. IITA Monograph 1, 208 pp.

Lal. R., 1981a. Deforestation and hydrological problems. Pp. 131 140 in Tropical Agric. Hydrology, R. Lal and E.W. Russell (eds). U.K.: J. Wiley & Sons.

Lal. R.. 1981b. Clearing a tropical forest II. Effects on crop performance. Field Crops Res. 4:345-354.

Lal. R., 1982. Effect of slope length and terracing on runoff and erosion on a tropical soil. IAHS Publ. 137:23-31.

Lal, R., 1984. Soil erosion from tropical arable lands and its control. Adv. Agron. 37: 183-248.

Lal, R.. 1986a. Conversion of tropical rainforest: agronomic potential and ecological consequences. Adv. Agron. 39: 173-264.

Lal, R., 1986b. Soil surface management in the tropics for intensive land use and high and sustained production Adv. Soil Sci. 5: 1-109.

Lal, R., 1987a. Approaches to and needs for land clearing. IBSRAM Proc. Series 3, Bangkok, Thailand.

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Lal, R.. 1987c. Managing soils of sub-Saharan Africa. Science 236: 1069-1076.

Lal, R.. 1989a. Agroforestry systems and soil surface management of a tropical Alfisol. 1 V. Agroforestry Systems 8: 1-6; 7-29: 97-111: 113-132: 197-215: 217-238: 239-242.

Lal, R.. 1989b. Land degradation and its impact on food and other resources. Pp. 85 140 in Food ant Natural Resources, Pimental et al. (eds). New York: Academic Press.

Lal, R., 1989c. Soil management options in the tropics as alternatives to slash and burn. Soil Technology 2: 253-270.

Lal. R.. 1990a. Low-resource agriculture alternatives in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Soil Water Cons. 45: 437-445.

Lal. R., 1990b. Managing soil carbon in tropical agro-ecosystems. EPA Workshop on Climate Change. Washington, D.C.

Lal, R.. 1990c. Soil erosion in the tropics: principles and management. New York: McGraw Hill.

Lal, R., 1992. Tropical Agricultural Hydrology and Sustainability of Agricultural Systems: A Ten Year Watershed Management Project in Southwestern Nigeria. IITA Report, Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio State University. 303 pp.

Lal, R., 1993a. Global soil erosion in the tropics and carbon dynamics. Proc. Int'l. Symp. Soil Processes and Management Systems: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Sequestration, 5 9 April 1993, Columbus. Ohio.

Lal. R., 1993b. Agricultural activities and carbon emissions from soils of the tropics. Proc. Int'l. Symp. Soil Processes and Management Systems: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Sequestration, 5-9 April 1993, Columbus, Ohio.

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Lal, R., and F.P. Miller, 1993. Soil duality and its management in humid subtropical and tropical environments. Proc. XVII International Grassland Congress, Massey University. NCSA, Zealand.

Lal, R., B.S. Ghuman, and W.A. Shearer, 1992. Cropping systems effects of a newly cleared Ultisol ha southern Nigeria. Soil Tech. 5: 27-38.

Lal, R., P.A. Sanchez, and R.W. Cummings, Jr. (eds), 1986. Land Clearing and Development in the Tropics. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema.

Lal, R., D.J. Eckert. N.R. Fausey, and W. M. Edwards, 1 990. Conservation tillage in sustainable agriculture. Pp. 203-225 in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. C.A. Edwards et al. (eds). Ankeny, Iowa: SWCS.

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