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IV. Content of global learning

To many observers, global learning seems to remain vague, somewhat unclear, when discussed in the abstract. In real life, global learning not only represents an intellectual framework or perspective. it is linked to concrete purposes and is embedded in a specific context. Thus, global learning also entails learning about something. We will now turn to the content of global learning.

First, some remarks on the specific content that are represented by different social levels and needs. Although it seems obvious, there is a constant need to repeat the fact that the same phenomenon will not have the same impact in different socio-cultural settings. It is one thing to add still another television channel in an already TV-saturated environment and quite another to introduce television in a setting where there is little, if any, access to modern media. In the UNU context, global-learning activities have been concerned at one end of the scale with participatory learning at the most urgent and most neglected level. How can scientific information, relevant to the survival and basic quality of life of unfavoured groups in developing countries, be in a timely fashion, in a manner and form that makes sense to them and, most importantly, on subjects of their choice? At the other end of the scale, studies have concerned themselves with the manner in which learning about global issues can contribute to ameliorate a situation in which higher education is often seen as inadequate for addressing "current human problems."

The basic thrust is that global learning concerns itself with global issues as they are worked out at different levels of society, in terms of both needs and opportunities. The following discussion of possible issue areas that would be the content of global-learning activities is based on the consideration of proposals for projects and action in this field.

1. Development

The perhaps most obvious and one of the most urgent global-learning concerns is development. As mentioned earlier, development has a clear learning dimension that has often been perceived as no more than the education and training of people to become fit for service as producers and consumers to conform to the image of what has happened in the industrialized world. It is in this context that the concept of "human resource development" becomes problematic: resources are means to an end, while the basic current concept is that human beings should be the subjects of development, not the objects of development.

The form of learning that lies at the heart of development is the "rather elusive process" of social learning, in the global sense used here. As to what needs to be learned, the content of this learning process, Soedjatmoko has indicated various sets of goals, each one by implication pointing to failures in development thinking and development practice. These sets of goals include:

- individual and collective enhancement of a society's ability to adjust to change and to direct change even in the face of such phenomena as new demographic patterns, new technologies, new modes of production, and new stages of political consciousness;

- capacity to develop policies and attitudes that can come to grips with the common structural impediments to change;

- the need, morally and politically, to deal effectively with poverty as symptomatic of a process of economic and environmental decay, often compounded by social and political instability;

- the willingness to socialize and bring into the national mainstream hitherto marginalized groups without raising unacceptable levels of social tension. This implies learning how to motivate and release the energies of those whom Gandhi called "the last, the least, the lowest, and the lost";

- organizing for new purposes, the adjustment of traditional institutions to serve these needs;

- new lessons in the management of development activities. Government bureaucracies and institutions must learn how to adjust to the required systems of self-management and self-reliance, as well as to cope with economic interdependence. In addition, they must also learn how to develop the skill of consensus-making, in the context of pluralism, and to deal with the violence of emerging groups that perceive that their aspirations are not being accommodated;

- ability to live together in increasingly higher population densities, finding new ways to make urban communities function, concerning ourselves not only with how these mega-cities can be assured of their food, energy, and housing needs, but also with the ways in which communities of such size and density can function effectively, with civility, thereby avoiding violent conflict and retaining their creativity;

- capacity to meet the learning needs, brought on by development, through an unprecedented flow of information into the villages and urban neighborhoods. This also implies developing individuals and communities, a capacity for continuous learning, creative impulses, and critical assessment.20

These points have been mentioned in some detail because in many respects they are applicable to several subject-matters such as global change.

It is clear that this kind of required learning involves not only individuals at all social levels over their life-span, but also all major in situations in society, be they governmental or non-governmental, in eluding business enterprises, labour unions, the military, professional associations, women's movements, grass-roots and environmental groups. Learning for the purposes of development implies learning by individuals, by communities, by societies, and in the final count, by the human species.

2. Environment

Concerns about the environment are not new. Yet only in recent years have ecological crises reached such pervasive, disruptive, and potentially disastrous levels that "suddenly the world itself has become a world issue."21 Thus today's environmental problems are closely interlinked, planetary in scale, and, literally, deadly serious.

However, more important than another list of issues is the inter-linkage of environmental problems, particularly what they all amount to in the aggregate. The Brundtland Commission has aptly used the image of our earth seen from space as an entry point when it said, "From space we see a small and fragile ball, dominated not by human activity and edifices, but by a pattern of clouds, oceans, greenery, and soil. Humanity's inability to fit its doings into that pattern is fundamentally changing planetary systems. Many such changes are accompanied by life-threatening hazards. This new reality, from which there is no escape, must be recognized - and managed."22

A complement from the national level arrived in a recent study of resources, population, and the future of the Philippines. The study came to the conclusion that, "the grim prospect of a deepening subsistence crisis throws a long shadow over Philippine socio-economic and political development extending into the next century.... Without effective policies to slow population growth? broaden access to land and other natural resources, and stem environmental degradation, these problems could contribute to increased social unrest, and possibly political violence.23

Social unrest due to environmental degradation, resource depletion, and social injustice have already occurred in various countries. Analysts also foresee that if present trends continue unchecked, environmental problems might well become major reasons for international conflict, and even war. In the coming decades such problems will range from squabbles over mineral deposits and other natural resources to controversies over unilateral decisions in one country that will affect situations in other countries (transborder pollution, downstream effects of effluents, deforestation, over-fishing, and destruction of habitat).

In fact, analysts have pointed out that comparisons to the environmental changes now under way can only be found by going back millions of years in earth's history; the situation is thus totally outside of any human experience. As a result, learning how to cope with these changes is, and will continue to be, a new and difficult experience.

The reluctant and/or partial recognition of this new reality has already led to some action. Despite often bitter scientific and sociopolitical controversy in this area, the ecological crises have reached such a level that the scientific community has merged and agreed on a number of scientific projects on a global scale.

There have also been some surprisingly rapid intergovernmental agreements on specific problems such as the Vienna Ozone Treaty24 and its Montreal Protocol,25 as a well as a series of high-level meetings. However, in addition to the difficulties in getting even limited agreements accepted and implemented, voices are already raised in concern that what has been done is not enough and often too late. In general, the agreements are attacking symptoms rather than causes.

Even though the reality of the situation is only partly perceived and accepted even less so, it has led to a new look at the causes, trends, and phenomena that make current measures appear inadequate, insufficient, and sometimes frivolous. It would be easy to find some examples of these newly perceived issues that hint at the kind of changes that are required. However, it is more important to recognize the interlinkage between development, population, and environment. Far from being antagonistic to development, environmental protection is an irreplaceable partner to development. Environment and development are now seen as opposite sides of the same coin.

Today's challenges require that ecological principles and environmental understanding permeate economic activity. In the future, environmental protection must become a process of designing environmentally sustainable patterns of providing an environmentally non-destructive livelihood. In both rich and poor countries, economic and environmental goals must be integrated in powerful new ways..."26

In summary, what is required is a change in thinking, and changes in the way things are done and organized. While little has so far been said about the global learning that is required, it is obvious that the learning dimension will be crucial if we are to achieve:

- the necessary integration of population, environment, and development policies;
- growth beyond such immature attitudes as growth for growth's sake or hiding behind "technological fixes";
- economic stability by rethinking our economies;
- a change in attitudes towards nature and the interrelationship between man and nature.

Take the following two examples. One, there seems to be increasing agreement that there is a need for a complete transformation of technologies, production, and consumption, but very little debate on what this actually might mean. If environmental factors must be integrated into the design of our energy, transportation, and other systems, it might well mean extensive changes in the provision for private and public transport. Energy might have to be provided at its real price. The inevitable industrialization for the third world will take place, bringing with it the polluting technology invented in and disseminated by the industrialized North.

The other example concerns itself with international cooperation, which will have to take place at hitherto unknown levels. Unilateral decisions by countries on any matter that might affect the environment will probably have to be subjected to negotiations and agreements. This means that there is a need to upgrade international environmental agencies so that they can work out new international treaties and integrate environmental concerns into trade and other rules governing international economic relations.

And, finally, there is a moral and ethical dimension, a need to rethink humanity's global obligations, but even more: to act without rapacity, to use knowledge with wisdom, to respect interdependence, to operate without hubris and greed - these are not simply moral imperatives. They are an accurate scientific description of the means of survival. It is this compelling force of fact that may, I think, control our separatist ambitions before we overturn our planetary life.27


1. International Commission on the Development of Education, Learning to Be: The World of Education Today and Tomorrow (Unesco. 1972).

2. J. W. Botkin, No Limits to Learning (Pergamon Press, 1979).

3. Soedjatmoko, 1985 (citation incomplete). See generally Soedjatmoko. infra note 12.

4. Kuhn (citation incomplete).

5. Van Bertalanffy, Boulding, et al. (citation incomplete).

6. Varela (citation incomplete).

7. Revised draft charter of the United Nations University, reprinted in United Nations University: Report of the Secretary General, U.N. GAOR, 28th Sess., Agenda Item 52 at 2, U.N. Doc. A/9149/Add.2 (1973).

8. Freeman, 1974:45 (citation incomplete).

9. (Citation incomplete); see generally, llya Prigogine, "Irreversibility and Space-Time Structure," in Physics and the Ultimate Significance of Time (David Ray Griffin, ea., 1986); Ilya Prigogine and Isabelle Stengers. Order Out of Chaos (New Science Library, 1984); Ilya Prigogine, From Being to Becoming (W.H. Freeman & Co., 1980); Gregoire Nicolis and Ilya Prigogine, Exploring Complexity (W.H. Freeman & Co., 1989).

10. See Varela 1988, 1989 (citation incomplete).

11. Supra note 7.

12. (Citation incomplete); see generally Soedjatmoko, "Global Issues and Human Choices," 19 World Futures, 191 (1984).

13. Citation incomplete.

14. Dunn, 1971, p.185 (citation incomplete).

15. Citation incomplete.

16. Soedjatmoko. 1984 (citation incomplete); see generally Soedjatmoko, supra note 12.

17. Chief Justice Michael Kirby (citation incomplete).

18. (Michael Gibbons, Bjorn Wittrock, eds., Longman, 1985). 19. Sargent, 1989 (citation incomplete).

20. Soedjatmoko (citation incomplete); see generally Soedjatmoko. supra note 12.

21. Shabecoff, "Suddenly the World Itself is a World Issue,' New York Times 25 Dec. 1988 at

22. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, I (Oxford University, 1987).

23. G. Porter, with D. J. Ganapin, Jr., Resources, Population, and the Philippines' Future: A Case Study (World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., 1988).

24. Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 22 Mar. 1985, 26 I.L.M. 1529 (1987)

25. Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16 Sept. 1987, 26 I.L.M. 1550 (1987)

26. Speth, 1989 (citation incomplete).

27. This was said by Barbara Ward shortly before her untimely death (citation incomplete).

B. Chronological index of selected international environmental legal instruments


Baden (Federal Republic of Germany)-Switzerland: Berne Convention Establishing Uniform Regulations Concerning Fishing in the Rhine between Constance and Basle, 9 December 1869, 149 CTS 137.

Baden (Federal Republic of Germany)-France-Switzerland: Basle Convention Establishing Uniform Regulations Concerning Fishing in the Rhine and its Tributaries, Including Lake Constance, 25 March 1875, 149 CTS 139.


London Convention for the Protection of Wild Animals, Birds and Fish in Africa, 19 May 1900, 94 BFSP 715.

Convention for the Protection of Birds Useful to Agriculture, 19 March 1902, 102 BFSP 969, 191 CTS 91.

Canada-United States of America: Washington Treaty Relating to Boundary Waters and Questions Arising Along the Boundary Between the United States and Canada, 11 January 1909, 12 Bevans 319, 36 Stat. 2488, TS 548, 102 BFSP 137.

Treaty for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals, 7 July 1911, 37 Stat. 1542, TS 564, 104 BFSP 175.

Convention for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean, 2 March 1923, 32 LNTS 93.

1925- 1949

Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 24 September 1931, 155 LNTS 349, 49 Stat. 3079, TS 880.

London Convention relative to the Preservation of Fauna and Flora in Their Natural State, 8 November 1933, UKTS No. 27 (1930), 172 LNTS 241.

Washington Convention on Nature Protection and Wild Life Preservation in the Western Hemisphere, 12 October 1940, 161 UNTS 193, 3 Bevans 630, 56 Stat 1354, TS 981.

London Convention for the Regulation of the Meshes of Fishing Nets and Size Limits of Fish, 5 April 1946, 231 UNTS 199.

Washington International Convention for the North-West Atlantic Fisheries (Preamble, Art. Vl[1]), 8 February 1949, 157 UNTS 157, 1 UST 477, TIAS 2089.


Paris International Convention for the Protection of Birds, 18 October 1950, 638 UNTS 185.

Paris Convention for the Establishment of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, 18 April 1951, UKTS No. 44 (1956).

FAO International Plant Protection Convention, Rome (amended 1979), 6 December 1951, 150 UNTS 67.

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil, London (and 1962, 1969, 1971, (2x) Protocols), 12 May 1954, 327 UNTS 3, 12 UST 2989, TIAS 4900.

FAO Plant Protection Agreement for [South-East] Asia and the Pacific Region, Rome (amended 1967, 1979, 1983), 27 February 1956, 247 UNTS 400.

Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 29 April 1958, 559 UNTS 285, 17 UST 138, TIAS 5969.

Antarctic Treaty, Washington (Arts V[1], IX[f]), 1 December 1959, 12 UST 794, TIAS 4780, UKTS No. 97 (1982) 402 UNTS 71.



Steckborn Convention on the Protection of Lake Constance against Pollution, 27 October 1960, UNLegSer No. 12, p. 438.

European Social Charter (Arts, 3[1], [3], 11), 18 October 1961, 529 UNTS 89, ETS No. 35.

Paris International Convention on the Protection of New Varieties of Plants, 2 December 1961, 815 UNTS 89.

Protocol Concerning the Constitution of an International Commission for the Protection of the Mosel Against Pollution, 20 December 1961, 940 UNTS 211.

Berne Convention on the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine against Pollution, 29 April 1963, 994 UNTS 3.

Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapons Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, 5 August 1963, 480 UNTS 43, 14 UST 1313, TIAS 5433.

Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement in Connection with Radiation Accidents, 17 October 1963, 525 UNTS 75.


International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, 14 May 1966, 673 UNTS 63.

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Arts. 12[2][b], 25. See also Arts. 7, 11, 12[1], [2][c]), 16 December 1966, 993 UNTS 3, 6 ILM 360 (1967).

Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities or States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, Including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies (Art. IX), 27 January 1967, 610 UNTS 205, 18 UST 2410, TIAS 6347.

Phyto-sanitary Convention for Africa South of the Sahara, 13 September 1968, UNEP3 No. 12.

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 15 September 1968, 1001 UNTS 3.

Tanker Owners Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liability for Oil Pollution, "TOVALOP," 7 January 1969, 8 ILM 497 (1969).

Bonn Agreement for Co-operation in Dealing with Pollution of the North Sea by Oil, 9 June 1969, 704 UNTS 3, 9 ILM 359 (1970).

La Paz Convention for the Conservation of the Vicuņa, 16 August 1969, 969 IELMT 61.

FAO Convention on the Conservation of the Living Resources of the South-East Atlantic, Rome, 23 October 1969, 801 UNTS 101.

Brussels International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 29 November 1969, 973 UNTS 3, UKTS No. 106 (1975), 9 ILM 45 (1970).

Brussels International Convention Relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Oil Pollution Casualties, 29 November 1969, 970 UNTS 211, 26 UST 765, TIAS 8068.



Oil Companies: Contract Regarding an Interim Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution, "CRISTAL," 14 January 1971, 10 ILM 137 (1971).

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, 2 February 1971, 11 ILM 963 (1972), UKTS No. 34 (1976), 996 UNTS 245.

Brussels International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (amending Protocols 1976, 1984), 18 December 1971, 1110 UNTS 57, UKTS No. 95, 11 ILM 284 (1972).


Oslo Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft (1978 Protocol), 15 February 1972, 932 UNTS 3, UKTS No. 119 (1975), 11 ILM 262 (1972).

Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, 29 March 1972, 961 UNTS 187, 24 UST 2389, TIAS 7762.

Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 16 June 1972, A/ CONF.48/14, 1972 UNYB 319, 11 ILM 1416 (1972).

UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 16 November 1972, 27 UST 37, TIAS 8226, 11 ILM 1358 (1972).

UNGA Resolution: Institutional and Financial Arrangements for International Environmental Co-operation (UNEP Statute), 15 December 1972, A/RES/299(XXVII).

IMO Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Ocean Dumping Convention - LDC) (amended 1978 (2x), 1980, 1989), 29 December 1972, 1046 UNTS 120, 26 UST 2403, TIAS 8165, 11 ILM 1294 (1972).


Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 3 March 1973, 993 UNTS 243, 27 UST 1087, TIAS 8249, UKTS No. 101 (1976), 12 ILM 1085 (1973).

London International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), 2 November 1973, IMO: MP/CONF/ WP.35, 12 ILM 1319 (1973).

Oslo Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, 15 November 1973, 27 UST 3918, TIAS 8409, 13 ILM 13 (1973).


Nordic Convention on the Protection of the Environment, 19 February 1974, 1092 UNTS 279, 13 ILM 591 (1974).

Helsinki Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, 22 March 1974, 13 ILM 546 (1974).

OECD Council Recommendation on Principles Concerning Transfrontier Pollution (with annexed "Some Principles"), 14 November 1974, OECD C(74) 224.

OECD Council Recommendation on the Implementation of the Polluter Pays Principle, 14 November 1974, OECD C(74) 223, 14 ILM 234 (1975).

OECD Council Recommendation: Analysis of the Environmental Consequences of Significant Public and Private Projects, 14 November 1974, OECD C(74) 216, OECD p. 28.


Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (Basket Two: "Co-operation in the Fields of Economics, of Science and Technology and of the Environment," Sec. 5: "Environment"), 1 August 1975, 14 ILM 1307 (1975).


Barcelona Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution, 16 February 1976, 15 ILM 290 (1976).

Barcelona Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Dumping from Ships and Aircraft, 16 February 1976, 15 ILM 300 (1976).

Barcelona Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, 2 April 1976, 15 ILM 306 (1976).

Convention on the Conservation of Nature in the South Pacific, 12 June 1976, UNEP3 No. 68.

OECD Council Recommendation: A Comprehensive Waste Management Policy (with annexed Principles), 28 September 1976, OECD C(76)155 Final.

Bonn Convention for the Protection of the Rhine against Chemical Pollution, 3 December 1976, 1124 UNTS 375, 16 lLM 242 (1977).

Bonn Convention for the Protection of the Rhine against Chemical Pollution by Chlorides, 3 December 1976, 16 ILM 265 (1977).

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques, 10 December 1976, 1108 UNTS 151, 31 UST 333, TIAS 9614, 16 ILM 88 (1977).


London Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage from Offshore Operations [Resulting from Exploration for and Exploitation of Sea Bed Mineral Resources], 1 May 1977, 16 ILM 1450 (1977).

OECD Council Recommendation: Implementation of a Regime of Equal Right of Access and Non-Discrimination in Relation to Transfrontier Pollution (with annexed Principles), 17 May 1977, OECD C(77)28 Final, 16 ILM 977 (1977).

Additional Protocol I to the 1949 Geneva Conventions Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict (Arts. 35[3], 53, 55, 56), 8 June 1977, 16 ILM 1391 (1977)

Additional Protocol II to the 1949 Geneva Conventions Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflict (Arts. 14-16), 8 June 1977, 16 ILM 1442 (1977).

ILO Convention Concerning the Protection of Workers Against Occupational Hazards in the Working Environment Due to Air Pollution, Noise and Vibration, Geneva, 20 June 1917, UNEP3 No. 73.


UNEP Government Council Decision: Principles of Conduct in the Field of Environment for Guidance of States in Conservation and

Harmonious Utility of Natural Resources Shared by Two or More States, 19 May 1978, A/RES/(XXVIII), 17 ILM 1091 (1978).

Brasilia Treaty for Amazonian Co-operation, 3 July 1978, UNEP Reg. p.164, 17 ILM 1045 (1978).

OECD Council Recommendation on Strengthening International Co-operation on Environmental Protection in Transfrontier Regions (with annexed guidelines), 21 September 1978, OECD C(78)77 Final.

Canada-United States of America: Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (amending Protocol 1987), 22 November 1978, 30 UST 1383, TIAS 9257.


Bonn Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, 1979, 19 ILM 15 (1980).

Council of Europe Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats, 19 September 1979, ETS No. 104, UKTS No. 56 (1982).

ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, 13 November 1979, TIAS 10541, 18 ILM 1442 (1979).



IUCN World Conservation Strategy, Living Resources Conservation for Sustainable Development (in cooperation with UNEP, WWF, FAO, and Unesco), 1980, UNEP/GC/DEC/8/11.

Multilateral Development Institutions: Declaration of Environmental Policies and Procedures Relating to Economic Development, adopted by ADB, Arab Bank for Economic Development in Africa, AFDB, World Bank, EEC (Commission), OAS, UNDP, and UNEP, 1 February 1980, 19 ILM 524 (1980).

IAEA Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, 3 March 1980, UNTS Reg. No. 24631, IAEA INFCIRC/274.

UNEP Governing Council Decision: Provisions for Co-operation between States in Weather Modification Activities, 29 April 1980, UNEP GC/DEC/8/7/A.

Athens Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution from Land-Based Sources, 17 May 1980, Doc. No. 79, UNTS Reg. No. 22281, 19 ILM 869 (1980).

Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Re sources (CCAMLR), 20 May 1980, 33 UST 3476, TIAS 10240, UKTS No. 48 (1982), 19 ILM 841 (1980).

UNGA Resolution: On the Historical Responsibility of States for the Protection of Nature for the Benefit of Present and Future Generations, 30 October 1980, A/RES/35/8.


FAO: World Soil Charter, 1981, 21 FAO Conf. Res. 8/81.

Abidjan Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution in Cases of Emergency, 23 March 1981, 20 ILM 756 (1981).

Abidjan Convention for Co-operation in the Protection and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the West and Central African Region, 23 March 1981, 20 ILM 746 (1981).

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (Art. 24), 27 June 1981, 21 ILM 59 (1982).

Lima Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment and Coastal Area of the South-East Pacific, 12 November 1981, UNEP/ CPPS/IG/32/4.

Lima Agreement on Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution of the South-East Pacific by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, 12 November 1981, UNEP Reg. p. 197.


Jeddah Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Environment, 14 February 1982, UNEP Reg. p. 201.

Jeddah Protocol Concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency, 14 February 1982, UNEP Sales No: GE.83-lX-02934.

Geneva Protocol Concerning Mediterranean Specially Protected Areas, 3 April 1982, UNTS Reg. No. 24079.

Benelux Convention on Nature Conservation and Landscape Protection, 8 June 1982, UNEP Reg. p. 207.

ILA Montreal Rules of International Law Applicable to Transfrontier Pollution, 4 September 1982, 60 ILA 158 (1983).

World Charter for Nature, 28 October 1982, A/RES13717, 22 ILM 455 (1983).

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Montego Bay (Arts. 43, 6467, 116-120, 145, 192-237, Annex A, 10 December 1982, I) CONF.62/122, 21 ILM 1261 (1982).


Cartagena Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region, 24 March 1983, 22 ILM 221 (1983).

Quito Protocol for the Protection of the South-East Pacific Against Pollution from Land-Based Sources, 23 July 1983 UNEP Reg. p. 199.

FAO International Undertaking on Plant Genetic Resources, 23 November 1983, 22 FAO Conf. Res. 8183.


Geneva Protocol on Long-Term Financing of Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP), 28 September 1984, EB. AIR/AC.1/4.


Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 22 March 1985, 26 ILM 1516 (1987).

Nairobi Convention for Eastern African Region, 1985, Nairobi Protocol Concerning Protected Areas and Wild Fauna and Flora in the Eastern African Region, 21 June 1985, UNEP Reg. p. 228.

Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or Their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30 Per Cent, 8 July 1985, 27 ILM 707 (1988).

ASEAN Agreement on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 9 July 1985, 15 EPL 64 (1985).


EEC Single European Act (Art. 18- adding Art. 100a to the EEC Treaty, Art. 25 - adding Title VII [Arts. 130 R-T]: Environment, to the EEC Treaty), 17 February 1986, OJEC 1987 L 169/1, 25 ILM 506 (1986).

IAEA Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, 26 September 1986, IAEA INFCIRC/335, 25 ILM 1370 (1986).

IAEA Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, 26 September 1986, IAEA INFCIRC/ 336, 25 ILM 1377 (1986).

EEC Commission Regulation: Protection of Forests against Atmospheric Pollution, 17 November 1986, OJEC 1986 L 326/2, Reg. No. 3528/86.

Protocol for the Prevention of Pollution of the South Pacific Region by Dumping, 25 November 1986, UNEP Reg. p. 243.

Convention for the Protection of the Natural Resources and Environment of the South Pacific Region, 25 November 1986, UNEP Reg. p. 241.

Protocol Concerning Co-operation in Combating Pollution Emergencies in the South Pacific Region. 25 November 1986, UNEP Reg. p. 245.


Agreement on the Action Plan for the Environmentally Sound Management of the Common Zambezi River System, 28 May 1987, 27 ILM 1109 (1988).

UNEP Governing Council Decision: Goals and Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment 17 June 1987, 17 EPL 36 (1987), UNEP GC/DEC/14/25.

Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, 16 September 1987, 26 ILM 1550 (1987).

Amending Protocol to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (1978), 18 November 1987, TIAS 10798.


Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources Activities (Preamble, Arts. 1[4], [15], 2[1][a], 4[2-4], 8, 10, 13[2], [6], 15, 21[1], [9][c]), 2 June 1988, 21 ILM 859 (1988).

Sofia Protocol Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, 31 October 1988, 28 ILM 212 (1989).

UNGA Resolution: Protection of Global Climate for Present and Future Generations of Mankind, 6 December 1988, A/RES/43/53, 28 ILM 1326 (1989).


UNEP London Guidelines on the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade, 17 February 1989, UNEP/PIC/ WG.2/2 p. 9.

Hague Declaration, 11 March 1989, A/44/340, 28 ILM 1308 (1989).

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, 22 March 1989, UNEP/ WG.190/4, 28 ILM 657 (1989).

Brasilia Declaration on the Environment, by the Sixth Ministerial Meeting on the Environment in Latin America and the Caribbean, 31 March 1989, A/44/683, Annex, 28 ILM 1311 (1989).

OECD Council Recommendation on the Application of the Polluter-Pays Principle to Accidental Pollution, 7 July 1989, OECD: Doc. C(89)88, 28 ILM 1320 (1989).



Convention on the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region, 1983, Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife, 16 January 1990.

Decisions of the Second Meeting of Parties to the Montreal Protocol (MP) (Nos. II/1-20 and Annexes I [Adjustments to MP], II [Amendments to MP], III [Non-Compliance Procedure]), 29 June 1990, UNEP/OzL.Pro.2/3.

IAEA General Conference Resolution on Code of Practice in the International Transboundary Movement of Radioactive Waste, 21 September 1990, 30 ILM 556 (1991).

Accord of Cooperation for the Protection of the Coasts and Waters of the Northeast Atlantic Against Pollution Due to Hydrocarbons or Other Harmful Substances, 17 October 1990, 30 ILM 1227 (1991).

International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 30 November 1990, 30 ILM 733 (1990).


Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes Within Africa, 29 January 1991, 30 ILM 773 (1991), with annexes I-V, 31 ILM 163 (1992).

United Nations Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context, 25 February 1991, 30 ILM 800 (1991).

Canada-United States Agreement on Air Quality, 13 March 1991, 30 ILM 676 (1991).

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, 14 June 1991, 30 ILM 1624 (1991).

Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (with Schedule on Arbitration and four Annexes - Environmental Impact Assessment, Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora, Waste Disposal and Waste Management, and Prevention of Marine Pollution), 21 June 1991.

Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds or Their Transboundary Fluxes, 18 November 1991.

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