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1. Only occasionally does this situation change, as it did for example in 1971, when the warm waters of the El Niño current reached the Peruvian coast. Floods replaced the drought because Lima, with its flat roofs and lack of drainage system, is not equipped for rain.

2. The minimum monthly wage in June 1994 was the equivalent of US$72.

3. The monthly cost of the basket of essential goods (calculated as twice the cost of a basket of basic foods) was US$323 at a time when the highest decile of income earners averaged US$321 per month.

4. The largest interchange cost US$22 million; it was the largest civil engineering project in the city in 1991.

5. This has led to abuses such as the importing of right-hand-drive buses from Japan which are then modified by local firms. The number of accidents caused by badly modified steering has risen dramatically.

6. The mayors were voted in for a period of three years in the last election, in January 1993, but the new constitution, approved at the end of 1993, states that the municipal period lasts four years. It seems, therefore, that the present mayors will be in power for four years.


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CEPAL (1993) "Balance preliminar de la economía de America Latina y el Caribe." Notas sobre la economía y el desarrollo 552/3.

DESCO [Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desarrollo] (1993) "Canasta de la pobreza." Coyuntura Laboral 77: 14 15. de Soto, H. (1987) The other path. I.B. Taurus.

Driant, J.C. (1991) Las barriadas de Lima. DESCO/IFEA.

Gamero, J., R. Guzmán, and L. Valverde (1994) La pabreza en el area de Lima Metropolitana. DESCO.

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Riofrío, G. (1978) Se busca terreno para próxima barriada: Espacios disponibles en Lima 1940,1978, 1990. DESCO.

- (1991) Producir la ciudad (popular) de los noventa: Entre el mercado y el estado. DESCO.

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