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1. Bureau of Statistics, Management and Coordination Agency of Japan, The Statistics of Japan 1990 (Nihon no Tokei), p. 132.

2. Ibid. p. 78.

3. This haul ranks first and it is 13 per cent out of the total catch in the world. Association of Agriculture and Forestry Statistics of Japan (Norin Tokei Kyokai), "White Paper of Fishing Industry in Japan 1990" (Gyogyo Hakusho), p. 4.

4. Ibid. p. 5.

5. Hirasawa, Yutaka, "Japanese Fishing Industry - Its History and Possibility" (Nihon no Gyogyo, Sono Rekishi to Kanosei), NHK Books, p. 4.

6. For further consideration, see Abe, Hitoshi, Muneyuki Sindo, and Sadafumi Kawato, "Modern Japanese Politics" (Gendai Nihon no Seiji), Tokyo: Tokyo University Press, 1991, pp. 99-106.

7. Ibid. p. 20.

8. For the details of this process, see Kojima, Kazuo, "Legislative Process of Japan" (Horitsu no Dekiru Made) Tokyo: Gyo Sei Press, 1991

9. "Modern Japanese Politics", op. cit., pp. 29-34.

10. For this Council, see Murakawa, Ichiro, "Decision-making System of the LDP" (Jiminto no Seisaku Kettei Sistemu), pp. 131-163.

11. Article 40, the Rules of the LDP. For further details, see "Legislative Process of Japan," op. cit., pp. 105-108.

12. For this Council and its reports, see Ocean Development Council (Kaiyo Kaihatsu Singikai), "Long-term Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts for Ocean Development 1979" (Chokiteki Tenbo ni tatsu Kaiyo Kaihatsu no Kihonkoso ni tsuite)

13. Ibid. pp. 5-6.

14. For this Committee and the report, see Committee of Inter-Ministerial Bodies and Agencies Concerned with Promoting Ocean Development (Kaiyo Kaihatsu Kankei Schocho Renraku, Kaigi), "Plan for the Promotion of Ocean Development 1987" (Kaiyo Kaihatsu Suisin Keikaku).

15. "Japanese Fishing Industry - Its History and Possibility," op. cit., pp. 136-138.

16. Ibid. pp. 138-146.

17. Ibid. p. 156.

18. Ibid. p. 5.

19. Ibid. pp. 149-154.

20. Article 1, The Fisheries Act of 1949.

21. For Fishermen's Cooperatives, see Imamura, Naraomi, and Yosito Jinnouchi, eds, "Fishery in the New Ocean Era" (Sin Kaiyojidai no Gyogyo), Tokyo: No San Gyoson Bunka Kyokai, 1988, pp. 219-263.

22. From this point of view, it is really "porous." See Pacem in Maribus XIX background paper, annex II of this book.

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