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Strengthening the family - Implications for international development

Table of Contents

Marian F. Zeitlin, Ratna Megawangi, Ellen M. Kramer, Nancy D. Colletta, E.D. Babatunde, and David Garman

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Was ist das Schwerste von allem?
Was dir das Leichste dŁnket,
mit den Augen zu sehen,
Was vor den Augen dir liegt.

(What is the most difficult of all? That which seems to you the easiest, To see with one's eyes What is lying before them.)

—Goethe, Xenien Aus Dem Nachlass #45


Introduction and purpose

Project scope
Need for a family focus
Definitions of the family and its functions
Potential multiplier effects for family interventions
Seeking development from within each culture
Organization and overview

Social change and the family

Sociological, anthropological, and historical perspectives
The modern family
Positive links between socio-economic development and the modern family
Negative effects of development on the family and society
Changes in the late- and post-industrial era
At the threshold of profound change
The post-modern family
Reach of post-modern influences into the developing world
Lessons from the social change literature for family social health
A post-modern approach to progress

Economic perspectives on the family

Definitions of the family and household
The new home economics
Concepts in the analysis of household/family behaviour
Methods for predicting the impact of development inputs on families
Findings relevant to the family
Insights regarding family social wellness

Psychological approaches to the family

The vastness of the field
The family as an entity
The family from a child development perspective
The family both as an entity in itself and as the producer of developmental and welfare outcomes of its members
Family social wellness

Perspectives from international development assistance and from family programmes

The flagship role of early childhood development programmes
The UNICEF conceptual framework
Family factors and programmes that protect high-risk children
The effects of early intervention programmes
Impacts on family functioning or social health

The Javanese family

Introduction to the Javanese model
East Asian relationship to socio-economic development
An overview of Java
Concepts of individual, family, and community
The family arrangements
The status of women in the javanese family
The Javanese value of children
Marital relationships
Relationships in the family
Social network and family support system
Javanese concept of life
Teaching manners and values
Social implications of the javanese value system
Challenges for transition

The Yoruba family: Kinship, socialization, and child development

Introduction to the yoruba model
The Yoruba family

Structural models of family social health theory

Conceptualization of the family system model
Justification of the model
An application of structural modelling
Javanese family models
Nigerian family models
Appendix: Variable description and composite index construction

Synthesis of concepts and research needs

Definition of well-functioning families or family social health
Importance of family social health in producing child growth and development
Family management
Caring capacity
Beliefs, rules, and goals
Family boundary maintenance
Proposed research model for measuring family social health
The need for further research

Policy and programme recommendations

Need to alleviate poverty
Need to support local family policy initiatives
Assessment, cultural renewal, and policy formation
Negative effects of existing policy structures
New social realities
Public familism
Confusion over the roles of organized religion, the government, non-governmental organizations, and the family
Slowing, speeding, or adjusting cultural change
Seeking answers in post-modern industrial conditions and Asian examples
Specific recommendations