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Expanding access to science and technology

Table of contents

Edited by
Ines Wesley-Tanaskovic, Jacques Tocatlian, and Kenneth H. Roberts

Expanding Access to Science and Technology: The Role of Information Technologies

Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on the Frontiers of Science and Technology Held in Kyoto, Japan, 12-14 May 1992

The United Nations University
Tokyo, Japan

The United Nations University, 1994

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

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The United Nations University Press, the publishing division of the UNU, publishes scholarly books and periodicals in the social sciences, humanities, and pure and applied natural sciences related to the University's research.


Note to the reader from the UNU


Opening address

Opening address

Session 1: Access to science and technology and the information revolution

Introduction: Access to science for the benefit of mankind


Keynote presentation: the impact of information technology on the access to science

1. Introduction
2. Diversity of information requirements
3. Numeric and factual databases
4. Evaluation and quality control
5. Traditional access mechanisms
6. Electronic access to scientific data
7. Data as an international commodity
8. The future

Session 2a: Experiences with international cooperation and the developing countries

A critical evaluation of experiences and strategies

1. Introduction
2. Patterns of international cooperation
3. Selected experiences and strategies
4. Difficulties of the developing countries: Partners in international cooperation

Session 2b: The technological experience: information resources and networks

Databases and data banks

1. Introduction
2. Some figures and definitions
3. Typology of world databases and data banks
4. Cooperation among database producers
5. Database production
6. Use of databases
7. Bibliometry applied to STI or scientometry
8. Hypertext
9. Multimedia
10. Economic problems
11. Ownership, legislation, and copyright problems
12. Conclusion

Communication networks

1. Introduction
2. The narrow-band ISDN
3. Broad-band ISDN
4. Concluding remarks

The electronic library

1. Introduction
2. Library automation and the electronic library
3. Other examples of the electronic library
4. The electronic library of the future
5. Conclusions

Panel discussion 1: Achievements and limitations in international cooperation as seen by the developing countries

Session 3: New technologies and media for information retrieval and transfer

The potential offered by "extended retrieval"

1. Introduction
2. Four information retrieval "architectures"
3. Illustrations of extended retrieval
4. Some technical issues
5. Conclusion

Information retrieval: Theory, experiment, and operational systems

1. Scientific communication and information retrieval
2. Anomalous states of knowledge
3. Relevance
4. Early experiments in IR
5. Language
6. Boolean logic, search strategy, and intermediaries
7. Associative methods
8. Probabilistic models
9. Information-seeking behaviour
10. Intelligence

Computerized front-ends in retrieval systems

1. Introduction: The information environment
2. Definition of front-ends in retrieval systems
3. Taxonomy of front-ends
4. Examples of front-ends
5. Evaluation of front-ends
6. Directions for research and development
7. Conclusion: Implications for developing countries

Multimedia technology: A design challenge

1. Introduction
2. What are communication media and how do they differ?
3. Are human beings aware of the capabilities of different media?
4. What can the technology do now?
5. User centred or design centred?
6. The PROMISE multimedia interface project
7. How does one design a multimedia interface?
8. Some initial guidelines
9. Conclusions
10. Acknowledgements


Session 4: Intelligent access to information: Part 1

Simulated man-machine systems as computer-aided information transfer and self-learning tools

1. Introduction
2. Human interaction with integrated automation in man-machine systems
3. Knowledge-based information access by means of simulation and self-learning tools
4. Needs for future research and socio-technical development

Human-centred design of information systems

1. Introduction
2. Human-centred design
3. Applications
4. Lessons learned
5. Conclusions

Designing interactive systems based on cognitive theories of human information processing

1. Hypermedia systems
2. User-oriented and task-driven system design
3. SEPIA: A cooperative hypermedia authoring environment
4. Conclusion

Personal hypermedia systems

1. Introduction
2. What is hypermedia?
3. Hypermedia products
3. How useful is hypermedia for business people?
4. Executive information systems
5. Summary


Session 4 : Intelligent access to information: Part 2

Machine translation

1. A brief history of machine translation
2. System configurations
3. Ability of current machine translation systems
4. Introduction and use of machine translation
5. Evaluation factors of machine translation systems
6. Japanese machine translation systems
7. Japanese governmental efforts
8. Dictionary
9. State of the art in Europe and the United States
10. The international association for machine translation
11. The future of MT

The new world of computing: The sub-language paradigm

1. Prologue
2. Obstacles to the development of the telephone-computer
3. Sub-language: a new paradigm
4. The implementation of sub-languages
5. The creation and basing of sub-languages
6. Networking in the telephone-computer era
7. All of the world's information
8. The new world of computing applications development environment
9. Toward an efficient organization of the software and data provider industry
10. The vision and the realization
11. Epilogue

Real-world computing and flexible information access: MITI's new programme

1. Introduction
2. Background
3. The concept of real-world computing
4. Outline of RWC programme
5. Theoretical foundation
6. Novel functions for application
7. Computational bases
8. Research organization and plan


Session 5: From new technologies to new modalities of cooperation

Systems management for information technology development

1. Introduction
2. A gateway strategy for information technology developments
3. Knowledge facets for systems integration and information technology development
4. A newness matrix approach to information technology development
5. Phased life cycles for system acquisition
6. Evaluation of technologies
7. Information technology perspectives
8. Summary

A role for the UNU/IIST: Developing countries' access to new information technologies

1. Part 1: UNU/IIST
2. Part 2: Advanced applications
3. Part 3: Advanced technologies
4. Conclusion

The potential of information technologies for international cooperation

1. The new technologies
2. Information and knowledge
3. Activities of some international bodies in information technologies cooperation
4. Educational strategies
5. Developing countries
6. Negative tendencies and illusions

Panel discussion 2: Towards new modalities of international cooperation
Closing remarks

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