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Technological independence - The Asian experience

Table of Contents

Edited by:
Saneh Chamarik and Susantha Goonatilake

The United Nations University, 1994

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

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The region and the global historical setting
Post-second world war geopolitics
New technologies
The study

1. India

Development perspectives in the indian economy
Technology policy
R&D and self-reliance
India's technological capability: an international comparison
Factors in technological development
Concluding remarks

2. China

Historical perspective
National factor endowments
Case-studies in the different economic sectors
Exogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
A desirable path and a strategy for S&T development

3. The Republic of Korea

Development policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
The plans
Impact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
Science and technology in korea before the 1960s
The role of science and technology in recent development
Science and technology and the exogenous environment
Education and training
Research and development
Reassessment of the policy and strategy
Achievements in industrial development
The electronics industry as a case-study
Self-reliance targets at each stage
Problems and issues
Future plan for self-reliance of science and technology
The long-term goals and strategy of national development
Role of science and technology for future development
Long-term goal of S&T development
Summing-up and regional cooperation
Regional cooperation

4. Thailand

Traditional path of development
Development of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
An evaluation of Thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
Case-studies in agriculture
A desirable path

5 The Philippines

The historical roots of technological dependence
S&T policy: rhetoric and reality
Case-study results
Technological dependence: nature and consequences
S&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
The vicious circle paradigm
The anatomy of technology transfer
The search for models: learning from Asia
Vision and commitment
Toward a leap-frogging strategy
Appendix 1
Appendix 2. Major achievements of S&T in the Philippines

6. Japan

Five stages from "technology transfer" to "self-reliance"
Three stages to technological self-reliance
Degree of self-reliance of technology
Low estimation of imported technology
Historical perspectives on self-reliance
Japan's experience and Asian perspectives
Japanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
Performance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
Technological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order

7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future

Republic of Korea
The geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
Formal S&T structure and industry
The rural-urban relationship
Informal and formal sectors
New generic technologies
Social shaping of technology
Conscious shaping of the technology
Existing agendas for shaping technology
Concluding remarks


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