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Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture
• Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates

Table of contents (195 p.)

Hassan Fathy

edited by Walter Shearer
Abd-el-rahman Ahmed Sultan

Published for
The United Nations University
The University of Chicago Press
Chicago and London

Vernacular Architecture

HASSAN FATHY, an Egyptian architect, has taught on the Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo and served as head of its architectural section. He has received the Union of International Architects Gold Medal, the Egyptian Government's National Prize for Arts and Letters, and the Aga Kahn Award for Architecture. He is the author of Architecture for the Poor, also published by the University of Chicago Press.

The author and the United Nations University would like to thank Dr. Abd-el-rahman Ahmed Sultan for kindly allowing the reproduction of his copyrighted photographs appearing as figures 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 72 as well as for the preparation of all the drawings used in the text with the exception of figures 51 and 79. The unit used on the scales of all drawings is the meter.

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London

© 1986 by Hassan Fathy
All rights reserved. Published 1986
Printed in the United States of America
95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 5 4 3 2 1

United Nations University Press
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Tel.: (03) 3499-2811. Fax: (03) 3406-7345.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Fathy, Hassan.
Natural energy and vernacular architecture.

Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Architecture, Domestic-Arid regions Arab countries.
2. Vernacular architecture-Environmental aspects-Arab countries.
3. Architecture and energy conservation-Arab countries.
I. Shearer, Walter.
II. Sultan, 'Abd al-Rahman.
III. Title.

NA7117.A74F3 1986
ISBN 0-226-23917-9
ISBN 0-226-23918-7 (pbk.)




Part 1. Man, natural environment, and architecture

1. Environment and architecture

Effect of climate on architectural form
Conscious modification of the microclimate
Trends in international architecture

2. Architectural thermodynamics and human comfort in hot climates

Thermal conduction and resistance
Thermal convection
Atmospheric pressure
Water vapor
Cooling by evaporation
Thermal gain
Thermal loss
Dynamic thermal equilibrium
Heat-regulating mechanisms of the human body
Measurement of conditions of human comfort

Part 2. Natural energy and vernacular architecture

3. Architecture and comfort

Architectural design for a comfortable microclimate
Building materials

4. The sun factor

The roof

5. The wind factor in air movement

Air movement by pressure differential
The Claustrum
The wind-escape
The malgaf
The bădgir

6. The sun factor in air movement

Air movement by convection
The courtyard house
The takhtabüsh
Traditional city layout and climate

7. The humidity factor

The fountain
The salsabil




Appendix One: Data on saturated water vapor
Appendix Two: Thermal comfort sensation scales
Appendix Three: Data on thermal transmittance
Appendix Four: Angles of declination and altitude for Cairo, Egypt

Glossary: Architectural terminology of the region

Selected bibliography

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