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In Place of the Forest
• Environmental and Socio-economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula •

Table of contents (324 p.)

Harold Brookfield, Lesley Potter, and Yvonne Byron

United Nations
University Press

UNU Studies on Critical Environmental Regions
Edited by Jeanne X. Kasperson, Roger E. Kasperson, and B.L. Turner II

© The United Nations University, 1995

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

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03000 P


Note from the editors

Abbreviations and glossary

Introduction and acknowledgements

A thematic book that is also a regional book
The plan of the book
Explanation and acknowledgements

Part 1 : Background and the course of events

Borneo and the Peninsula, and their environment

Place and people
The biophysical environment
Climatic variability

Transformation of the land before the recent period

A not remote past
The impact of early mining
The first major phase of transformation
Environmental consequences of the first development wave

Change since World War II

The background of modern economic transformation
New Order and New Economic Policy
Energy exports and production
Minerals, industry, and the cities
Agriculture and land settlement
Deforestation and timber extraction

Part 2 : Issues of endangerment and criticality

Forest clearance and loss of biodiversity

The issues
Consequences for the forest and its environment
The case of the Gunung Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Deforestation and crop gene-pools
Conclusion: Conservation areas

Forest clearance and life-support capacity

Forest clearance and erosion
Life support and deforestation
Sustainability of timber extraction and the timber-using industry
Conflict of interest and the prospect for change

The forest people: Endangerment or criticality?

The issues
Deconstructing shifting cultivation
Different ways of farming the forests
Forest dwellers under forces of change
Land and forest at risk?
The future
Criticality, or crisis of adaptation?

Deforestation and global climate

The issue as presented: Criticality of global concern
Research on carbon dioxide emissions from tropical deforestation
Longer-term considerations
The place of the Borneo and Peninsular forests in the management of greenhouse gas emissions

Drought and fire: Hazards leading toward endangerment

Droughts, fires, and El Niño
Greater detail on El Niño-induced droughts in Borneo

Studies in the grasslands of Borneo

Imperata - A problem or a solution?
The occurrence of Imperata cylindrica in Borneo
The Riam Kiwa and the Ela Hulu: Contrasts and similarities in study sites

Urban development and social welfare

Levels of urbanization
The major urban centres of Borneo
Poverty and social welfare

Review and conclusions

Environmental changes and impacts
The human driving forces
Societal response
Trajectories and regional dynamics change

Appendix : A discussion of environmental and PROCEZ criticality

Forms of criticality
Environmental criticality
Implications of PROCEZ criticality
Endangerment, criticality, and this case-study


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