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1. J.E. Bardach, J.H. Ryther, and W.O. McLarney, Aquarulture: The Farming and Husbandry of Freshwater and Marine Organ isms, pp. 1 - 28, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, 1972.

2. D.J. Crisp, in Productivity of World Ecosystems, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1975.

3. J. Ohla and R. Sinha, "Present Status and Potentiality of Freshwater Fish Production in Ecosystems with Different Management Levels," submitted to Aquaculture.

4. O. Kinne, and H. Rosenthal, in O. Kinne (ed.), Marine Ecology, Vol. III, Part 3, pp. 1321 - 1398, Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977.

5. G.H. Allen and B. Hepher, "Recycling of Wastes through Aquaculture and Constraints to Wider Application," FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture, 26 May - 2 June 1976, p 19, Kyoto, Japan, PIR: AQ/Conf/76/R. 19 (1976).

6. B. Hepher, in S.D. Gerking (ed.), Ecology of Freshwater Fish Production. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1978.

7. W.O. McLarney, J.S. Levine, and M.M. Sherman, "Midge (Chironomid) Larvae as Growth-Promoting Supplement in Fish and Lobster Diets," Bamidgeh 29 (1): 17 - 24 (1977)

8. G.L. Schroeder, "Some Effects of Stocking Fish in Waste Treatment Ponds," Water Ben 9: 591 - 593 (1975)

9. J.H. Ryther and J.E. Bardach, The Status and Potential of Aquaculture, American Institute of Biological Sciences, Washington, D.C., May 1968, Clearinghouse for Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, Virginia, Vol. I: PB 177-767.

10. P. Korringa, Farming Marine Organisms Low in the Food Chain, Vol. l, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. 1976.

11. S.M. Singh and P.N. Ferns, "Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Rainbow Trout Salmo gairdneri (Richardson) Maintained on a Diet Containing Activated Sewage Sludge," l Fish. Biol. 13: 277 - 286 (1978).

12. D.D. Tapiador, H.F. Henderson, M.N. Delmendo, and H. Tsutsui, Freshwater Fisheries and Aquaculture in China, a report of the FAO Fisheries (Aquaculture) Mission to China, 21 April - 12 May 1976, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 168.

13. M.G. McGarry and J. Stainforth, Compost, Fertilizer, and Biogas Production from Human and Farm Wastes in the People's Republic of China, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, IDRC-TS8e, 1978.

14. J.E. Bardach, "Aquaculture," in D. Pimentel (ed.), CRC Handbook: Energy in Agriculture, CRC Press, West Palm Beach, Florida, (in press)

15. M. Rawitscher and J. Mayer, "Nutritional Outputs and Energy Inputs in Seafood," Science 198: 261 - 264 (1977).

16. A. Yashouv, "Mixed Fish Culture - An Ecological Approach to Increase Pond Productivity," FAO World Symposium on Warm-Water Pond Fish Culture, 18 - 25 May 1966, Rome, FR: V/R-2.

17. H.D. Buck, R.J. Baur, and C.R. Rose, "Utilization of Swine Manure in a Polyculture of Asian and North American Fishes," Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 107 (1): 216 - 222 (1978).

18. K.R. Tenore, M.G. Browne, and E.J. Chesney Jr., "Polyspecies Aquaculture Systems: The Detrital Trophic Level," J. Marine Res. 32 (3): 425 - 432 (1974).

19. A.K. Sanghi and D. Day, in W. Lockeretz (ed.), Agriculture and Energy, pp. 607 - 624, Academic Press, New York, 1977.

20. E. Woynarovich, "The Feasibility of Combining Animal Husbandry with Fish Farming, with Special Reference to Duck and Pig Production," FAO Technical Conference on Aquaculture 26 May - 2 June. 1976, Kyoto, Japan, FIR: AQ/Conf/76/R. 6.

21. R. Ho, "Mixed Farming and Multiple Cropping in Malaya," in Proceedings of the Symposium on Land Use and Mineral Deposits in Hong Kong, Southern China, and Southeast Asia, paper No. 11, pp. 88 - 104, 1961.

22. J.E. Bardach, in S.D. Gerking (ed.), Eology of Freshwater Fish Production. pp. 424 446, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1978.

23. C.L. Kerns and E.W. Roelofs, "Poultry Wastes in the Diet of Israeli Carp," Bamidgeh 29 (4): 125 - 135 (1977).

24. S. Viola, "Energy Value of Feedstuffs for Carp," Bamidgeh 29 (1): 29 - 30, (1977).

25. D. R. Bayne, D. Dunseth, and C.G . Ramirios, "Supplemental Feeds Containing Coffee Pulp for Rearing Tilapia in Central America, Aquaculture 7: 133 - 146 (1976).

26. Y. Matsuda, "The Growth of Aquaculture in Developing Countries: Potentials, Patterns, and Pitfalls," Fisheries 3 (4): 2 - 6 (1978).

27. M. Delmendo, "The Plankton of Laguna del Bay, the Primary Basis of Milkfish Farming in Enclosures in the Area," Philippine Agriculturist 57 (7 - 8): 335 - 342 (1973 - 1974).

28. R. Moav, G. Wohifarth, G.L. Schroeder, G. Hulata, and H. Barash, "Intensive Polyculture of Fish in Freshwater Ponds. 1. Substitution of Expensive Feeds by Liquid Cow Manure," Aquaculture 10: 25 - 43 (1977).

29. E.E. Brown and S. Nishimura, in E.E. Brown (ed.), World Fish Farming: Cultivation and Economics, The AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut, 1977.

Discussion summary

A question was posed regarding the possible advantages of aquaculture in the sea rather than in inland ponds. It was pointed out that control of seed fish, breed, and feed is more difficult in the sea, although under controlled circumstances, molluscs do well in certain bays. There are great possibilities for future aquaculture in the sea, but this will depend on the genetic modification of existing marine species.

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