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The total amino acid profile of a food protein expressed in relation to some standard is a good indicator of the potential nutritive value, but it may at times be misleading if one or more of the essential amino acids are only partially available. If this is true, the "actual" nutritive value of the protein will be less than its "predicted" value, obtained from its amino acid profile. It is therefore critical that the availability of the reactive, but most frequently limiting essential amino acids, Iysine, methionine, and cystine,* be known. This is especially true for proteins present in processed foods and food ingredients.

Before amino acid data, whether "available" or "total," can be used as indicators of potential nutritional value, they must be expressed in relation to some reference standard. Such standards and the calculation of amino acid score are discussed in detail in the following chapter.


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30. S. Moore, D.H. Spackman, and W.H. Stein, "Chromatography of Amino Acids on Sulfonated Polystyrene Resins,"Ana/yt Chem., 30: 1185-1190 (1958).

31. D.H. Spackman, W.H. Stein, and S. Moore, "Automatic Recording Apparatus for Use in the Chromatography of Amino Acids," Analyt Chem., 30: 1190-1205 (1958).

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52. J. Atkinson and K.J. Carpenter, "The Nutritive Value of Meat Meals. ll. Influence of Raw Materials and Processing on Protein Quality," J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 21: 366 (1970) .

53. F. Mottu and J. Mauron, "The Differential Determination of Lysine in Heated Milk. ll. Comparison of the In Vitro Methods with the Biological Evaluation," J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 18: 57-62 11967).

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56. J. Mauron, "Influence of Industrial and Household Handling on Food Protein Quality," in E.J. Bigwood, ea., Protein and Amino Functions (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973), Pp.417-473.

57. K.J. Carpenter, "Damage to Lysine in Food Processing: Its Measurement and Its Significance," Nutr. Abstr. Rev., 43: 423-451 (1973).

58. J. Mauron, "Nutritional Evaluation of Proteins by Enzymic Methods," in A.E. Bender, ea., Evaluation of Novel Protein Products, Int. Bio. Prog., Wenner-Grem Symposium 1968 (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1970), pp. 211 -234.

59. E. Menden and H.D. Cremer, "Laboratory Methods for the Evaluation of Changes in Protein Quality," in A. Albanese, ea., Newer Methods of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. I V [Academic Press, New York, 1970), pp.123161.

60. J.E, Ford, "A Microbiological Method for Assessing the Nutritional Value of Proteins. 2. Measurement of 'Available' Methionine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Arginine, Histidine, Tryptophan and Valine," Brit. J. Nutr., 16: 409425 (1962).

61. E.L. Miller, K.J. Carpenter, C.B. Morgan, and A.W. Boyne, "Availability of Sulfur Amino Acids in Protein Foods.2. Assessment of Available Methionine by Chick and Microbiological Assays," Brit. J. Nutr., 19: 249-267 (1965).

62. H. Haenel and S.G. Kharatyan, "Some Observations on the Use of Microbiological Techniques for the Determination of Protein Quality," in J.W.G. Porter and B.A. Rolls, eds., Proteins in Human Nutrition (Academic Press, New York and London, 1973), pp.195-206.

63. J.E. Ford, "Microbiological Procedures for Protein Quality Assessment," in Nutritional Eva/uation of Cereal Mutants (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 1977), pp.73-85.

64. J. Ford, "Microbiological Assays," in C.E. Bodwell, J.S. Adkins, and D.T. Hopkins, eds., Protein Quality in Humans: Assesment and In Vitro Estimation (Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., USA, 1980 [in press] ).

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66. C. Shorrock, "An Improved Procedure for the Determination of Available Lysine and Methionine in Feedstuffs Using Tetrabymena pyriformis W., " Br. J. Nutr., 35: 333-341 (1976).

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68. N.A. Matheson, "Available Lysine. l. Determination of Non-N-Terminal Lysine in Protein,,, J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 19: 492-495 (1968).

69. N.J. Neucere, E.J, Cokerton, and A.N. Booth, "Effect of Heat on Peanut Proteins. l l. Variations in Nutritional Quality of the Meal,"J. Agr. Fd. Chem., 20: 256-261 (1972).

70. H. Erbersdobler and H. Zucker, "Lysine and Available Lysine in Skim Milk Powder," Milchwissenschaft, 21: 564-568 (1966).

71. R. Hurrell and K. J, Carpenter, "Mechanisms of Heat Damage in Proteins. 4. The Reactive Lysine Content of Heat-Damaged Material as Measured in Different Ways," Brit J. Nutr., 32: 589-604 (1974).

72. A.M. Boctor and A.E. Harper, "Measurement of Available Lysine in Heated and Unheated Foodstuffs by Chemical and Biological Methods," J. Nutr., 94: 289-296 (1968).

73. E.L. Miller, K.J. Carpenter, and C.K. Milner, "Availability of Sulphur Amino Acids in Protein Foods. 3. Chemical and Nutritional Changes in Heated Cod Muscle," Brit. J. Nutr., 19: 547-564 (1965) .

74. A.B. Morrison and Z.l. Sabry, "Factors Influencing the Nutritional Value of Fish Flour. ll. Availability of Lysine and Sulphur Amino Acids," Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 41: 649-655 (1963) .

75. A.B. Morrison and J.M. McLaughlan, "Availability of Amino Acids in Foods," in J. Bigwood, ed.,Protein and Amino Acid Functions (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1972), pp.389415.

76. A.W. Boyne, K.J. Carpenter, and A.A. Woodham, "Progress Report on an Assessment of Laboratory Procedures Suggested as Indicators of Protein Quality in Feeding Stuffs," J. Sc. Fd. Agric., 12: 832-848 (1961).

77. O. Mykelstad, J. Bjornstad, and L.R. Njaa, Fiskeridirektoratets Skrifter, Serie Teknologiske Undersdkelser., 5 (10), (1971).

78. S.R. Rao, F.L. Carter, and V.L. Frampton, "Determination of Available Lysine in Oilseed Meal Proteins," Anal. Chem., 35: 1927-1930 (1963).

79. A.G. Roach, P. Sanderson, and D.R. Williams, "Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Available Lysine Value in Animal and Vegetable Protein Sources," J. Sci. Fd. Agric.,18: 274-278 (1967).

80. P.A. Finot, F. Mottu, E. Bujard, and J. Mauron, "Availability of the True Schiffs Bases of Lysine: Chemical Evaluation of the Schiffs Base between Lysine and Lactose in Milk," in M. Friedman, ea., Nutritional /Improvement of Food and Feed Proteins (Plenum Publishing Corp.,

New York, 1978), pp. 549-570.

81. R.F.. Hurrel, P. Lerman, and K.J. Carpenter, "Reactive Lysine in Foodstuffs as Measured by a Rapid Dye Binding Procedure," J. Fd. Sci., 44: 1221-1227 (1979).

82. K. Carpenter, "Individual Amino Acid Levels and Bioavailability," in C.E. Bodwell, J.S. Ad kins, and D.T. Hopkins, eds., Protein Quality in Humans: Assessment and In Vitro Estimation (Avi Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., USA, 1980 [in press]).

83. P.A. Finot, E. Bujard, F. Mottu, and J. Mauron, "Protein Cross Linking: Nutritional and Medical Consequences," in M. Friedman, ea., Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 86B (Plenum Press, New York and London,1977), pp. 343-365.

84. S. Saenghian and M.S, Naik, "Determination of Lysine by Measuring Cadaverine Formed by Enzymatic Decarboxylation," Indian J. Biochem. and Biophys, 8: 106-107 (1971).

85. L.L. Wall and C.W. Gehrke, "Automated Enzymatic Determination of L-Lysine in Corn," J. Assoc. Offic Analyt. Chem., 57 (5): 1098-1103 (1974).

86. D. Skagberg and T. Richardson, "Preparation and Use of an Enzyme Electrode for Specific Analysis of LLysine in Cereal Grains," CerealChem., 56 (3): 147-152 (1979).

87. W.C. White and G.G. Guilbault, "Lysine Specific Enzyme Electrode for Determination of Lysine in Grains and Foodstuffs," Analyt. Chem., 50: 1481-1486 (1978).

88. L.R. Njaa, "Utilization of Methionine Sulphoxide and Methionine Sulphone by the Rat," Brit. J. Nutr.,16: 571-577 (1962).

89. W.T. Roubal, "Free Radicals, Maloxaldehyde and Protein Damage in Lipid-Protein Systems," Lipids, 6 (1): 62-64 (1974).

90. D. Pieniazek, M. Rakowska, and H. Kunachowicz, "The Participation of Methionine and Cysteine in the Formation of Bonds Resistant to the Action of Proteolytic Enzymes in Heated Casein," Brit. J. Nutr., 34: 163173 (1968).

91. H.W. Gardner, "Lipid Hydroperoxide Reactivity with Proteins and Amino Acids: A Review," J. Agric. Fd, Chem., 27 (2): 220-229 (1979).

92. T.E. McCarthy and M.X. Sullivan, "A New and Highly Specific Colorimetric Test for Methionine,"J. Biol. Chem., 141: 871-876 (1941).

93. S.R. Tannenbaum, H. Barth, and J.P. LeRoux, "Loss of Methionine in Casein during Storage with Autoxidizing Methyl Linoleate," J. Agric. Fd. Chem., 17 (6): 1352-1359 (1969).

94. S.H. Lipton and C.E. Bodwell, "A Rapid Method for Detecting Chemical Alteration of Methionine,"J. Agric. Fd, Chem., 25: 1214-1216 (1977).

95. G.M. Ellinger and A. Duncan, "The Determination of Methionine in Proteins bv Gas-Liquid Chromatography,"Biochem.J., 155: 615-621 (1976).

96. S.L. MacKenzie, "Analysis of Methionine in Plant Materials: Improved Gas Chromatographic Procedure,"J. Chromat, 130: 399402 (1977).

97. D.S. Miller and D.J. Naismith, "A Correlation between Sulfur Content and Net DietaryProtein Value," Nature, 182: 1786-1787 (1958).

98.1.M. Evans and D. Boulter, "Chemical Methods Suitable for Screening for Protein Content and Quality in Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata) Meals," J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 25: 311 -322 (1974).

99. P.L. Pellett, A. Kantarjian, and J. Jamalian, "The Use of Sulfur Amino Acids in the Prediction of the Protein Value of Middle Eastern Diets," J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 20: 229-234 (1969).

100. E.L. Miller and K.J. Carpenter,"Availability of Sulphur Amino Acids in Protein Foods. l.

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102. A.L. Lakin, "Evaluation of Protein Quality by Dye Binding Procedures," in J.W.G. Porter and B.A. Rolls, eds., Proteins in Human Nutrition (Academic Press, New York and London, 1973),pp.179-194.

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104. E.T. Moran, L.S. Jensen, and J. McGinnis, "Dye-Binding by Soybean and Fish Meal as Index of Ouality,"J. Nutr., 79: 239-244 (1963).

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106. J. Bunyan and S.A. Price, "Studies on Protein Concentrates for Animal Feeding," J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 11: 2537 (1960).

107. J. Atkinson and K.J. Carpenter, "The Nutritive Value of Meat Meals. ll. Influence of Raw Materials and Processing on Protein Quality,"J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 21: 366-373 (1970).

108, R.F. Hurrell and K.J. Carpenter, "The Use of Three Dye-Binding Procedures for the Assessment of Heat Damage to Food Proteins,"Brit J. Nutr.,33: 101-115 (1975).

109. R.F. Hurrell and K.J. Carpenter, "An Approach to thq Rapid Measurement of Reactive Lysine in Foods by Dye-Binding,"Proc. Nutr. Soc., 35: 23A-24A (1976).

110. K.H. Ney and l.P.G. Wirotama, "Determination of the Available Lysine in Milk and Processed Cheese by the Reactive Dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R.," Z. Lebensm.-Unters Forsch., 144: 92-95 (1970).

111. H.D. Pruss and K.H. Ney, "Determination of the Available Lvsine in Whey Powder, Whey Protein and Precipitated Casein by the Remazol Blue R. Method," Z. Lebensm.-Unters Forsch., 148: 347-351 (1972).

112. A. Frolich, "Reaction between Phthalein Dyes and Heated Foodstuffs," Nature (Lond.),174: 879 (1954).

113. E. Olomucki and S. Bornstein, "The Dye Absorption Test for the Evaluation of Soybean Meal Quality," J. Assoc. Off. Analyt. Chem., 43: 440-442 (1960).

114.1. Ascarelli and B. Gestetner, "Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Some Protein Needs for Poultry,"J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 13: 401-410 (1962).

115. C.M. Lyman, W.Y. Chang, and J.R. Couch, "Evaluation of Protein Quality in Cottonseed Meals bV Chick Growth and by a Chemica Index Method," J. Nutr., 49: 679-690 (1953).

116. J.P. Van Buren, K.H. Steinkraus, L.R. Hackler, l. El-Rawi, and D.B. Hand, "Indices of Protein Quality in Dried Soymilks,"J. Agric Fd. Chem., 12: 524-528 (1964).

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