Contents - Previous

This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at

Annotated bibliography

Abbott, John C., "Factors Conditioning the Production of Conventional and Non Conventional Proteins: Economic Aspects." Folia Veterinaria Latina, vol. Vl, Supplement 1, 1976, 11 pp.

The major economic influence on the production of conventional and nonconventional protein is effective market demand. Farmers may reduce output of grains, legumes, and livestock protein for lack of financial incentive, while large population groups still do not obtain enough to eat. This problem can be tackled through government pricing and marketing systems, provided the means are available. Specific economic production factors include: development and use of higher yielding plant and livestock strains, the availability and cost of fertilizers and other inputs, access to fishing grounds, and, in the case of single-cell protein, access to a low-cost raw material base available in sufficient quantity to justify large-scale production and marketing.

"The Efficient Use of World Protein Supplies." Monthly Bulletin of Agricultural Economics and Statistics, vol. 21, No. 6, June 1972, FAO Rome, 8 pp.

Economic forces tend to attract the production of protein food materials and direct them into the most profitable uses. Important determinants are production and processing techniques and costs, consumer attitudes, and spending power and initiatives in marketing. Present world use patterns for protein reflect these factors in the main. They result in such nutritional anomalies as fish-protein export from Peru and oilseed protein from India while many people in those countries have diets that are protein-deficient. Measures are being taken in many countries to improve distribution of protein foods to vulnerable groups. Approaches include direct provision of protein foods free, or at subsidized prices, to children in schools, and to mothers and pre-school children through designated shops or mobile units, sale of protein-fortified foods or cereals combined with educational and sales promotion campaigns to shift consumption expenditure toward them, and similar measures to modify free market purchases. The scale of the problem calls for major inputs of capital, organizing ability, and technical and promotional training. The need for specific marketing arrangements on both international and national levels to compensate for income inequalities and consumption preferences that are nutritionally perverse is likely to increase rather than diminish.

Alves, Edgard Luiz G., Nivel Alimentar, Renda e Educacao, Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, Sao Paulo, 1977, 36 pp. Study of socio-economic influence on family malnutrition for Sao Paulo households during the period September 1971-August 1972. Hypothesis and sample characteristics are included. Statistics on: nutritional levels per income group; proteins and calories in food consumption and food expenditures; parents' education; type of family. The conclusions point to income as the most important determinant of malnutrition.

Comissao de Financiamento da Producao, Ministerio da Agricultura, "Documentario Legal: Politica de Garantia de Precos Minimos." Brasilia,1976, 98 pp.

Legal aspects of the above described policy.

Anvario Estatistico 1977. Brasilia,1977,486pp.

Statistical yearbook for 1977; includes data on prices and financing for the products under the minimum price programme, by regions and products (monthly). Beginning of series varies according to products (usually mid1960s to 1976).

Precos Minimos-Regioes Centro-Oeste, Sudeste e Sul: Safra 1975/1976. Brasilia, 1975, 188 pp.

Description of market conditions and minimum price policy for 12 different agricultural products in the centre-west, southeast, and south of Brazil. The analysis and data cover the 1975/1976 harvest.

Agricultura 197611977: Perspectivas. Brasilia, 1976, 138 pp.

Analysis of the commercialization perspectives for 14 of the 21 products under the minimum price policy for the 1976/1977 harvest. Centre-west, southeast, and south regions of Brazil are covered.

Escola Superior de Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo. "Programa Integrado de Pesquisas sobre Nutricao." Mimeo, (no date).

Description of 11 research projects in the field of nutrition; list of curriculum vitae of researchers and proposed budget. The titles of the projects are: (a) Subsistence Agriculture and Food Production in Brazil; (b) Technical Analysis of Agriculture Research with Relation to the Production of Staple Foods; (c) Transformation of Traditional Agriculture and Food Production; (d) Analysis of the Evolution of Production, Prices and Productivity of some Agricultural Products in Brazil and the State of Sao Paulo, 1947/1971; (e) Availability of Nutrients in the State of Sao Paulo; (f) Food Consumption: A Qualitative Approach; (9) Price and Income Demand Elasticities by Type of Products; (h) Human Capital: The Health Factor; (i) Applica tion of Linear Programming Methods to Human Diets; (j) Low-Cost Diets; (k) Structure of Consumption in Lowlncome Agriculture.

Programa de Pesquisas Integradas: Oferta e Procura de Produtos Alimenticios Basicos e sues Relacoes na Nutricao Humana. Mimeo, 1977 - 1978.

Description of a research programme whose purpose is to gather information, for policy measures, on the relationship of demand and supply of staple foods and human nutrition. List of investigators, budget, and proposed methodology.

Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Instituto Brasileiro de Economia, Divisao de Estatistica e Econometria, Pesquisas sobre Consumo Alimentar, (three volumes). Rio de Janeiro, June 1975, 282 pp., 120 pp., and 76 pp.

Survey of food consumption that covers a segment of the Rio de Janeiro population; conducted from 10 October to 17 December 1973. The first volume includes some of the conclusions of the study, and socio-economic, income, and dietary data of the population under study. Volume I I has information about the methodology of the survey, tabulation of data, and training of interviewers. Volume l l l has chemical composition tables for different foods. The main conclusion of this study is that the most important variables explaining caloric undernutrition are income and family size. The latter is inversely related to level of calorie intake, and income per capita is directly related.

Fundacao Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas and INAN, "Proposta de Pesquisas: Analise Economica de Programmes de Alimentacao." FIPE, Sao Paulo.

Background and summary of a study proposed to INAN on the economic analysis of food consumption programmes in Sao Paulo vis-á-vis intervention policies to reduce malnutrition. The intent of this study was to compare two possible ways of public intervention in the malnutrition problem: a short-term programme of food supplements vs. a long-term programme of price reduction for staple foods. Several steps to accomplish this objective were proposed: studying, for example, the structure of food consumption by low-income families, the evolution of staple food prices, the markets for staple foods, etc.

Governo do Estado de Sao Paulo, Secretaria da Agricultura, Instituto de Economia Agricola, "Informacoes Economicas." Sao Paulo, June 1977, 69 pp.

Publication on agricultural statistics for the State of Sao Paulo, June 1977. Includes statistics on prices, credit, price indices, exports, and market conditions for several products. It also includes an article by Alberto Veiga on "Agricultural Policy and Inflation," largely with respect to the Sao Paulo agricultural sector.

Instituto de Medicina Preventiva, Escola Paulista de Medicina, and Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Estado Nutricional de Criancas de 6 a 60 Meses no Municipio de Sao Paulo. II. Analise de Dados Sao Paulo, 1975, 124 pp.

Nutrition survey among Sao Paulo pre-school children using income-1evel groupings during the period September 1973-March 1974. Contains methodology used as well as sample characteristics.

This study includes four steps: - Socio-economic characteristics, with data on: population by age and income level; number of family members; parents' education by income level; type of work and profession of parents by income level; occupation by economic sector and income level; type of housing and ownership of housing by income level; structure of total expenditure by income level; food expenditure index per capita; food expenditure by type of retail store and income level; type of health care by income level; migration; nutritional status of pre-school children by income level; socio-economic differences between families with undernourished pre-school children and families with normal pre-school children (by age, education, type of occupation, etc.). - Food consumption habits: breast-feeding and table food consumption among preschool children by income level; diet of pre-school children by income level; calorie, nutrient, iron, etc. intakes. - Health care: pre-natal care by income level; delivery conditions by income level; twins, prematures, length and weight at birth by income level; problems and illness during infancy;vaccinations;anthropometry. - Biochemical study.

Kirsten, Jose T., et al, Orcamentos Familiares Na Cidade de Sao Paulo 1971/1972. Instituto de Pesquisas Economicas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 1973, 255 pp. Extensive data on consumption of Sao Paulo households, as well as main socioeconomic characteristics of these consumption units during the period April 1971- October 1972. The methodology and samples used are thoroughly explained. The following data are included: - Structure of consumption of Sao Paulo households per income level; total consumption per family; total consumption per capita; total expenditure per family; total expenditure per capita; percentage of each item in the total expenditure. Socio-economic characteristics of Sao Paulo households per income level: family members employed; degree of education by age in families; types and condition of housing; food purchase habits by type of retail store; education of head of household by income level; distribution of employed family members by type of work and income level. - Structure of total consumption of Sao Paulo households per income level: expenditure; percentage of total expenditure.

Moura da Silva, Adroaldo, "A Conjuntura Economica Brasileira: 1974/1976." Mimeo, October 1976, 27 pp.

Paper on economic situation in Brazil from 1974 - 1976. General analysis of inflation in the country, balance of payment problems, and other monetary aspects. No specific mention of effects on consumption or nutrition.

"Distribuicao de Renda e Senso Comum." Mimeo, July 1977, 12 pp.

Discussion of growth, income distribution, and structure of investment. Alternatives for Brazil.

"Emprego, Distribuicao de Renda e Precos no Curto Prazo: Uma Visao Post Keynesiana." Mimeo,

Economic model that analyzes the conditions for distribution with growth in Brazil. The variables are: prices of consumption goods, nominal wages, labour productivity in goods for consumption, industry, etc.

Oliveria, Joao de Carmo, "Politica de Precos Minimos no Brasil." Comissao de Financiamento da Producao, Ministerio da Agricultura, Brasilia, 1977, 18 pp.

Historical evolution of minimum prices for agricultural products in Brazil. Description of the current model of minimum prices and the main tools of the programme: surplus purchases and commercialization financing. Includes a model for stock formation under different hypotheses of actual price behaviour and an explanation of the financial implementation of the policy.

Schwefel, Detlef, et al., "Producción, Empleo y Consumo Racional: Hacia una Cuantificación de Implicaciones Nutricionales de Proyectos de Inversion." Instituto Aleman de Desarrollo, Berlin, 1976,134 pp.

Methodological essay analyzing the nutritional implications of investment projects. The study is based on two investment projects in Peru, for which nutritional effects were evaluated. The author points out the need for changing production planning to a consumption planhing process. He considers the question: "Who gets the benefits of investment projects or programmes? to be the key point for analyzing nutritional implications. An investment project can, in theory, contribute in two ways to improve nutritional conditions: by increasing production and its real consumption, and by generating incomes and purchasing power. In order to evaluate these effects, a description of current nutritional status has to be made and compared with a constructed "rational budget of foods." They study ends with some proposals for a system of information on nutrition.

Secretaria de Planejamento da Presidencia da Republica and Fundacao Instituto Brasilerio de Geografia e Estatistica, Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar. Consumo Alimentar. Antropometria, (two volumes). Rio de Janeiro, 1977, 72 pp. and 110 pp.

Basically a publication with preliminary data for different regions of Brazil on food consumption and anthropometry. It is part of a broader research study of family food expenditures at a national level. Includes data on daily and annual calorie and nutrient intakes for different foods by place of purchase. Also gives anthropometric measurements by age and sex.

Singer, Paul, et al., Demanda por Alimentos na Area Metropolitana de Salvador. Caderno 23, CEBRAP, 1976, 96 pp.

Projections of total and per capita demand for 15 staple goods in the next two decades (1980s, 1990s) in the metropolitan area of Salvador (MAS). Includes projections of population, total income, personal income, distribution and consumption structure in the MAS. Methodologies for each of the projections are also included.

Superintendencia do Desenvolvimento do Nordeste and Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Abastecimento Alimentar no Nordeste Urbano-Parnaiba. Recife, 1974, 427 pp.

Analysis of demand and supply in the food market of the Municipality of Parnaiba. The survey was conducted in July 1973; the relation between income and consumption is studied through Engelian functions and income elasticities for several products.

Abastecimento Alimentar no Nordeste Urbano-Grande Recife. Recife, 1975, 550 pp.

The same study described above was performed for the metropolitan area of Recife. The survey was conducted during the period June-September, 1973.

Government Participation in and Regulation of Marketing: Select Bibliography

Abbott, John C., "Food Distribution: Limitation on Supplies and Consumption." Columbia J. World Business, Fall, 1975, 6 pp.

Identifies factors in distribution that result in unsatisfactory levels of consumption for large parts of the world's population. Indicates improvement programmes under way and scale of effort needed in countries with large lowincome populations.

Alibaruho, G., "Operation for Export Monopoly and Price Stabilizing Boards in East and West Africa: A Review of Methodology and Results." IDS Working Paper No. 182, University of Nairobi, 1974, 27 pp.

Australia, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, "Equalization Arrangements for Dairy Products, 1974. The Australian Dairy Industry: Marketing and Pricing Arrangements, 1975. Supply and Marketing Regulations in the Australian Fluid Milk Market." Canberra, Australia, 1975.

Three papers reviewing existing pricing and control arrangements; consideration of alternatives.

Blanford, D., "The Analysis of Buffer Feed Price Stabilisation by Export Monopoly Marketing Agencies in Developing Countries." d. Agric. Econ., 24 (1): 23-25, Jan. 1974.

An econometric model is tried out on the marketing of Gambian groundnuts and could be a useful tool in achieving Policy objectives. See also criticism by F.S. Ichaba and rebuttal by D. Blanford,J. Agric. Econ., 26 (1): 159 - 166, Jan.1975.

Brown, C.P., "Rice Price Stabilization and Support in Malaysia." Developing Econ., 11 (2): 164 - 183, 1973.

Price stabilization and support measures are discussed as well as improved techniques of production through the adoption of improved variable inputs. Concludes that, though price stabilization may be useful, a direct transfer to farmers in money or subsidies is likely to be a more efficient means of redistributing wealth than a high staple food price.

Coda Nunziante, G., "Come Regolare e Organizzare i Mercati Agricoli" (How to Regulate and Organize Agricultural Markets). A/manacco del Mezzagiorno, 1974, 16 pp.

Analyzes the goals and methods of the Common Market policy and the effect of measures to stabilize prices, distortions resulting from regulations, and impact on market structure.

Houck, J. "Some Aspects of Income Stabilization for Primary Producers" Austral. J. Agric. ECOQ, 17 (3): 200 215, 1973.

Discusses the basic economics of an aggregate industry stabilization policy and examines post-World War II income instability in Australia.

Livingston, l., "Production, Prices, and Marketing Policy for Staple Foodstuffs in Tanzania."Agricultural Policy Issues in East Africa. V.F. Amman. Makerere University, Kampala, May, 1973.

Motha, G., et al., "Fluctuations in Australian Rural Production and Prices-Some Implications for Support Policies." Quart Rev. Agric. Econ., 28 (1): 38-48, Jan. 1975.

Examines the inter-seasonal fluctuations in price and gross value of output for individual farm products. The implications of the results for Australian price stabilization policies are also reviewed.

Wills, l.R., "Reducing Meat Prices to the Consumer." Farm Policy, 14 (2): Sept.1974.

Discusses the difficulties and risks associated with market intervention in the meat industry.

Bibliography Suggested by Victor E. Smith, Michigan State University,.East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Matlon, P., "The Size, Distribution, Structure, and Determinants of Personal Income among Farmers in the North of Nigeria." Ph.D. Dissertation, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, 1977.

Has a few pages (277 - 284) on the relationship between income levels and available calories in three villages in northern Nigeria.

Pinstrup-Andersen P., N.R. de Londono, and E. Hoover, "The Impact of Increasing Food Supply on Human Nutrition: Implications for Commodity Priorities in AgricuItural Research and Policy." Am J. Agric. Econ., 58: 131 142, 1976.

Deals with the effects of specified increases in the production of individual food crops upon nutrient intake at various income levels.

Reutlinger, S. and M. Selowsky, "Malnutrition and Poverty: Magnitude and Policy Options." World Bank Staff Occasional/ Papers, No. 23, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1976.

Uses income-level groupings to estimate the number of people in various countries throughout the world whose calorie consumption is inadequate.

Whelan, W., "The Nutritional Component of Food Demand at Various Levels of Per Capita Gross National Product." M.A. Thesis, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1977.

Deals with eight nutrients (calories, total protein, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and thiamine), whereas most of the above cited papers treat only one or two.

Wilford, W.T., "Nutrition Levels and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Measures." J. Econ. Issues, 7: 437 458,1973

Used country-wide data to estimate the relationship between income levels and nutrient intake for calories and protein.

Ybanez Gonzalo, S., "Major Factors Affecting Rural Household Food Consumption." Discussion Paper No. 76 - 13, Institute of Economic Development and Research, School of Economics, University of the Philippines, 1976.

Presented as a paper at the Singapore workshop sponsored by the Agricultural Development Council in 1976, which presented income elasticities of demand for nutrients that were based on data from the Philippines.

Contents - Previous