Contents - Next

This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at

Editorial note

Difficulties arose in the preparation of the manuscript of these proceedings because of the tremendous diversity of names for the various ethnic groups in Northern Thailand. This results not only from the problem of transliteration but also from the variety of dialects and names used by the people themselves. In addition. some names are acceptable to members of an ethnic group in one area but totally unacceptable to members in a different area. As much as possible the names in these proceedings have been made consistent. and in order to facilitate understanding and references to the extensive literature available a list of the some of the common alternatives is given here:

Akha = Akho = Ekaw = Kaw = Ko
Hmong = H moong = Meo = Miao = Mong
Htin = Tin = Chao Doi
Karen = Yang = Carriana
Lahu = Musser= Muhso
Lisu = Lisaw= Yaoyen
Lua = Lawa
Yao = Mien = Kimmun = Man

The Thai term rai is a commonly used unit of area. 1 rai = 1.600 mē = 0.16 ha = 0.395 acre.

Contents - Next