Energy and Protein requirements, Proceedings of an IDECG workshop

Table of contents

Nevin S. Scrimshaw. John C. Waterlow and Beat Schürch, Editors

International Dietary Energy Consultative Group

Proceedings of an I /D /E /C /G Workshop held in London, UK

October 31 - November 4, 1994

On behalf of the UN ACC-Subcommittee on Nutrition, the International Dietary Energy Consultative Group (I/D/E/C/G) has been established for the study of dietary energy intake in relation to the health and welfare of individuals and societies by the United Nations University. Its specific objectives are:

1. The compilation and interpretation of research data on functional and other consequences of deficiency, change or excess of dietary energy.

2. The identification of related research needs and priorities, and the promotion of needed research.

3. The publication of scientific and policy statements and other information on the significance of chronic deficiencies and excesses of dietary energy.

4. The identification and promotion of appropriated and practical means of corrective action.

I/D/E/C/G Steering Committee:

- Dr. N.S. Scrimshaw, UNU, Chairman
- Dr. J.G.A.J. Hautvast, IUNS
- Dr. B. Schürch, Executive Secretary

European Journal of CLINICAL NUTRITION

Volume 50, Supplement 1, February 1996

Supplement Editors

Nevin S Scrimshaw, John C Waterlow, Beat Schürch,

Proceedings of an IDECG Workshop held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, UK

31 October-4 November 1994


J. S. Garrow
The Dial House, 93 Uxbridge Road, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire, WD3 2DQ, UK
Tel/Fax: +44 1923 710665

Review Editor

B. Isaksson
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Tel/Fax: + AA 31 180211

J. C. Seidell
Bead Department of Chronic Disease and Environmental Epidemiology,
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PO Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven,
The Netherlands
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Fax: +31 30 274 4407

Book Review Editor

J. C. Waterlow
15 Hillgate Street, London, W8 7SP, UK

Chairman of Editorial Board

A. Trichopoulou
Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Athens School of Public Health,
196 Alexandras Ave., GR-115 21, Athens, Greece
FAX: + 30 1 643 6536

Editorial Board

KH Brown University of California, Davies, USA
TJ Cole Dunn Nutrition Laboratory, Cambridge, UK
EB Fern Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-Chez-les Blanc Switzerland
A Ferro-Luzzi National Institute of Nutrition, Rome, Italy
E Helsing World Health Organization, Copenhagen, Denmark
JK Huttunen National Public Health Institute, Finland
JGAJ Hautvast Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands
S Inoue Yokohama City University, Kanazawa, Japan
WPT James Rowett Research Institute Aberdeen, UK
E Jéquier University of Lausanne, Switzerland
MR Law St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College, London, UK
D Lemonnier INSERM Paris, France
J Mann University of Otago, New Zealand
JA Olson lowa State University, Ames, USA
G Schöch Förschungsinstitut für Kinderenährung, Dortmund Germany
S Truswell University of Sydney, Australia


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Energy requirements: general principles

Energy expenditure as the basis for estimating energy requirements
Importance of body composition
Points of uncertainty requiring further research
Summary of research needs

Energy requirements of adults: an update on basal metabolic rates (BMRs) and physical activity levels (PALs)

Variability in adult BMRs
Predictive equations to estimate bmrs of adults
Ethnic differences in BMR
Effects of migration from tropical to temperate climate on BMR
Adaptation and energy requirements
Total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) in adults: doubly-labelled water data

Energy requirements of infants

Energy requirements of infants based on energy intake
Compilation of energy intakes published before and after 1980
Total energy expenditure of infants
Energy requirement for growth
Energy requirements of infants predicted from total energy expenditure and growth

Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old

Total daily energy expenditure (TEE)
Estimates of basal metabolic rate to calculate total energy expenditure
Time allocation to different activities
Physical activity levels of children and adolescents
Dietary energy intake
General conclusions and recommendations

Energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women

Recommendations for pregnancy
Recommendations for lactation

Energy requirements of older individuals

Methodology for determination of total energy expenditure
Total energy expenditure of older individuals
Relationship between total energy expenditure and physical activity
Effects of energy balance on nitrogen balance
Summary of energy requirements in older individuals and recommendations for future research

Protein requirements of infants and children

1. Introduction
2. Protein requirements of infants
3. Protein requirements of children and adolescents
4. Protein needs during catch-up growth
5. protein needs associated with infection
6. Assessment of protein quality of weaning diets
7. Future research needs

The requirements of adult man for indispensable amino acids

1. Introduction
2. The problem in defining requirements
3. Protein quality
4. The maintenance requirement (MR)
5.Diurnal cycling: the Millward-Rivers model
6. Theoretical basis of the MIT tracer balance studies
7. Technical problems of tracer balance studies
8. Results of the MIT tracer balance studies
9. Relation between leucine oxidation and nitrogen excretion
10. Factors relating to the design of tracer balance experiments
11. Breakpoint analysis
12. Effect of protein/amino acid intake on protein synthesis and breakdown
13. The colon: losses or gains?
14. Conclusion

Protein requirements of elderly people

Introduction: current dietary protein requirement recommendations
Protein requirement studies in elderly people: previously reviewed data
Protein requirement studies in elderly people: reassessment of previously reviewed data

Report of the working group on general principles of assessing energy requirements

General recommendations
Research needs

Report of the working group on energy requirements of infants, children and adolescents

General principles
Children and adolescents
Methodological considerations

Report of the working group on energy requirements for pregnancy and lactation


Report of the working group on energy requirements of older individuals

General statement
Recommendations on requirements
Recommendations for future research

Report of the working group on protein and amino acid requirements

Infection and catch-up growth
Children and adolescents
Research needs: Infants and children
Research needs: Adults

Appendix: Criteria for valid nitrogen balance measurement of protein requirements

Long-term studies
Analysis of multilevel short-term balance studies