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Food and Nutrition Bulletin - Volume 18, Number 2, June 1997

Table of Contents

Published by the United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Editorial address:

Food and Nutrition Bulletin
Charles Street Sta., P.O. Box 500
Boston, MA 02114-0500, USA
Tel: (617) 227-8747
Fax: (617) 227-9405

Subscription address:

United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
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Tokyo 150, Japan

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The Food and Nutrition Bulletin incorporates and continues the PAG Bulletin of the former Protein-Calorie Advisory Group of the United Nations system and is published quarterly by the United Nations University Press in collaboration with the United Nations ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition.

All correspondence concerning the content of the Bulletin, comments, news, and notices should be sent to the editor at the Boston editorial office address given above.

All material in the Bulletin may be reproduced freely provided acknowledgement is given and a copy of the publication containing the reproduction is sent to the editorial office.

Editorial policy

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is intended to make available policy analyses, state-of-the-art summaries, and original scientific articles relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world. It is not intended for the publication of scientific articles of principal interest only to individuals in a single discipline or within a single country or region. Notices of relevant books and other publications will be published if they are received for review. The Bulletin is also a vehicle for notices of forthcoming international meetings that satisfy the above criteria and for summaries of such meetings.

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin also serves as the principal outlet for the publication of reports of working groups and other activities of the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition (SCN) and its Advisory Group on Nutrition. The SCN itself is a focal point for coordinating activities of FAO, WHO, UNICEF, the UNU, UNESCO, the World Bank, the World Food Programme, the World Food Council, the United Nations Environment Programme, and other bodies of the United Nations system that have an interest in food and nutrition.

Submissions. Unsolicited manuscripts of articles of the type published in this and previous issues may be sent to the editor at the Boston office address given above. They must be typed, double-spaced, with complete references and must include original copy for any figures used (see the “Note for contributors” in the back of this issue).

Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcome, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. Letters to the editor are encouraged and will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest.

Peer review. The Bulletin is a peer-reviewed journal. Every article submitted first receives editorial review. If it is consistent with the editorial policy and is not obviously deficient in some way, it is sent to two or sometimes three experienced and knowledgeable reviewers. Occasionally a paper may be returned to the authors by the editor with suggestions for improvement before it is submitted to the reviewers.

If two reviewers agree that the paper should be published in the Bulletin, it is accepted and either sent immediately for copy-editing or returned to the authors for consideration of suggestions from the reviewers and the editor. If both reviewers agree that the paper should not be accepted, the editor writes a personal letter to the authors explaining the reason and enclosing the comments of the reviewers anonymously. If the reviewers do not agree with each other, either the paper is sent to a third reviewer or a decision is taken by the editor. In these cases, the authors are usually given a chance to respond to the reviewers’ comments.

Disclaimer. It is expressly understood that articles published in the Bulletin do not necessarily represent the views of the United Nations University, the UN ACC Sub-committee on Nutrition, or any United Nations organization. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors. Some articles in the Bulletin are reports of various international committees and working groups and do represent the consensus of the individuals involved; whether or not they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.

The United Nations University (UNU) is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world, and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo.

The United Nations University Press, the publishing division of the UNU, publishes scholarly books and periodicals in the social sciences, humanities, and pure and applied natural sciences related to the University’s research.

Food and Nutrition Bulletin

Dr. Nevin S. Scrimshaw

Assistant Editor:
Ms. Edwina B. Murray

Editorial Consultant:
Ms. Sarah Jeffries

Senior Associate Editor - Clinical and Human Nutrition:
Dr. Cutberto Garza, Director and Professor, Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA

Senior Associate Editor - Food Science and Technology:
Dr. Ricardo Bressani, Instituto de Investigaciones, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala

Associate Editors:
Dr. Abraham Besrat, Senior Academic Officer, United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan

Dr. Hernán Delgado, Director, Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Guatemala City, Guatemala

Dr. Joseph Hautvast, Secretary General, IUNS, Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands

Dr. Peter Pellett, Professor, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA

Dr. Zewdie Wolde Gebriel, Director, Ethiopian Nutrition Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Dr. Aree Valyasevi, Professor and Institute Consultant, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 2

© The United Nations University, 1997

United Nations University Press
The United Nations University
53-70 Jingumae 5-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel.: (03) 3499-2811
Fax: (03) 3406-7345
Telex: J25442

ISSN 0379-5721

Table of Contents

Executive summary

National pyramid for advanced training
Disciplinary and interdisciplinary breadth required for dealing with food and nutrition issues
Role of training for specific skills through short courses, workshops, and in-service training
Capacity-building for research

Experience of international food and nutrition initiatives for developing countries

Experience of the United Nations University in capacity-building
The Joint AAU/UNU Regional Food and Nutrition Project for Africa
Training courses
Discussion and conclusions

“Public nutrition”: The need for cross-disciplinary breadth in the education of applied nutrition professionals

The concept of public nutrition
The present study
Curriculum content: Responses of graduates of US programmes
Potential effectiveness of public nutrition education for improving nutrition
Professional definitions within public nutrition: Is it nutrition?
Institutional structure

Advanced training in food and nutrition: Disciplinary, interdisciplinary, and problem-oriented approaches

Limitations of disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches
Pragmatic limitations
Epistemological limitations and instrumental limitations
Normative limitations
The problem-oriented approach
Elements of a problem-oriented training programme

Disciplinary and interdisciplinary breadth required for dealing with modern food and nutrition issues for countries in transition

Implementing nutrition for populations in transition
Thailand’s nutritional development
A new approach is needed
Capacity-building for countries in transition
A proposed direction
A final note

Developing a national training pyramid

Levels and types of training according to proportion and categories of personnel

Role of training for specific skills through short courses, workshops, and in-service training

Past and present training efforts
Shortfalls in nutrition training efforts
New directions
Advantages of short courses
The role of long-term partnerships

Working Group report on disciplinary and interdisciplinary breadth required for dealing with food and nutrition issues

Specific objectives
Addressing remaining issues
Monitoring progress

Working Group report on developing a national pyramid for advanced training in food and nutrition

Description of the national training pyramid
Components of a national advanced training pyramid
Projected needs and functions
Strategies for implementation
Long- and medium-term learning indicators of success

Working Group report on the role of short-term training for institutional capacity-building

Short-term training defined
Objectives of short-term training
Targets for a short-term training programme
Present institutional capabilities in conduct of short-term training and resource requirements
Monitoring and evaluation

Working Group report on capacity-building in research

Background and context
Action steps
Time frame
Indicators of impact (expected results)

Anthropometric reference data for international use: Recommendations from a WHO Expert Committee

The foetus and newborn infant
Infants and children
Adults 60 years of age and older

Child malnutrition and feeding practices in Malawi

Data and methods
Univariate results
Multivariate results
Policy implications

Improved retinol, carotene, ferritin, and folate status in Nuxalk teenagers and adults after a health promotion programme


Books received

News and notes

Note for contributors
Note à l’intention des auteurs
Nota para los posibles autores
Food and Nutrition Bulletin subscription form
Title of interest