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UNU sub-programme on food, nutrition, and poverty


Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP)
Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City. Guatemala. Tel. 43762. Cable: INCAP GUATEMALA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Victor Valverde

The Nutrition Center of the Philippines (NCP)
Nutrition Center of the Philippines Bldg., South Super Highway, Nichols Interchange, Makati, Metro Manila 3116, Philippines. Tel. 85-30-71 to -79. Cable: NUTRICEN MANILA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Mercedes de Solon
Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI)
Mysore 570013, India. Tel. 22298. Cable: UNVERCENT MYSORE. Telex: 0846-241 FTRI IN. Co-ordinator: Dr. B. L. Amla

The International Food and Nutrition Policy and Planning Program. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard School of Public Health (IFNP) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20A-201, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-7617. Cable: MIT CAM. Telex: 92-1473 MIT CAM.

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana (DNFS)
P.O. Box 134, Legon, Ghana, Cable: UNIVERSITY LEGON. Co-ordinator: Dr. R. Orraca-Tetteh

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU)
Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Tel. 282-6435. Co-ordinator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi

National Food Research Institute (NFRI)
2-1-2 Kanondai, Yatabe-machi, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken 300-21, Japan. Tel. 02975-6-8011. Co-ordinator: Dr. Keiji Umeda

Universidad del Valle (UVC)
Apartado Aéreo 20353, Cali., Colombia. Co-ordinator : Dr. Luis Fajardo

University of the West Indies (UWI )
St. Augustine Campus: Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Crop Science, St. Augustine, Trinidad. Tel. 662-7171. Cable: STOMATA PORT OF SPAIN Resident Co-ordinator: Dr. Lloyd Rankine. Mona Campus: Tropical Metabolism Research Unit, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica. Tel. 927-6661. Cable: UNIVERS JAMAICA. Contact: Dr. Alan Jackson

Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA)
University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Tel. 214105, 214030. Cable: INTA CHILE. Co-ordinator: Dr. Ricardo Uauy

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Keppel Street (Gower Street), London WC1E 7HT, England. Tel. 01-636 8636. Co-ordinator: Dr. Philip Payne

Netherlands International Nutrition Institute (NINI)
Lawickse Allee 11, P.O. Box 88, 6700 AB, Wageningen, Netherlands. Tel. 108370) 19040. Co-ordinator: Dr. Joseph Hautvast

Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
Jaime Roig 11, Valencia 10, Spain. Tel. 369-08-00. Cable: IATA Valencia 10, Spain. Co-ordinator: Dr. Salvador Barber

Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Dhaka
Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Tel. 500288. Cable: NUTRITION DHAKA. Co-ordinator: Dr. Kamal Ahmad

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST)
PO Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea. Tel. 1967) 8801. Cable: KISTROK. Telex: KISTROK K 27380. Co-ordinator: Prof. Kong-Kyun Ro


Through IFNP:
Department of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., USA
Departments of Nutrition and Medical Anthropology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Conn., USA
Divisions of Geographic Medicine and Nutrition, Tufts University, Medford, Mass., USA
Department of Communications, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif., USA
School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., USA
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass., USA

Through the British Council:
Tropical Products Institute (TPI), London, UK
Dunn Laboratories, Cambridge, UK
Department of Food Science, University of Reading, Reading, UK
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
Queen Elizabeth House, Oxford, UK
Institute of Child Health, University of London, London, UK
Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
Agricultural Research Council, Food Research Institute, Norwich, UK

Through NCP:
University of the Philippines at Los Baños, Los Baños,, Philippines

Through NFRI:
Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan

Through NINI:
International Course in Food Science and Nutrition (ICFSN), Wageningen, Netherlands (Dr.. M.L.J. Mertens)
Department of Human Nutrition, Agricultural University, Wageningen, Netherlands (Dr. P. Middelburg)
Department of Tropical Nutrition, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands [Prof. J. Kusin)
Division for Nutrition and Food Research, TNO, Zeist, Netherlands (Prof. B. Krol)
Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Co-operation (NUFFIC), The Hague, Netherlands (Dr. C.W. Klugkist)

Through IATA:
Instituto de Nutrición, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificos de España, Madrid, Spain (Dr. Greqorio Varela)

Through CFTRI:
National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India (Dr. M. Mohanram)

International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). Washington, D.C., USA

International Scientific Unions
International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) International Union of Nutrition Sciences (IUNS)

In the United Nations system, the UNU Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty co-operates with the appropriate units or divisions of the following organizations with which the University has memoranda of understanding. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) World Health Organization (WHO)

The University is represented on the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination- Sub-committee on Nutrition.


Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile, Principal investigator: Dr. Abraham Stekel

Venezuelan Institute of Scientific Research (IVIC), Apartado 1827, Caracas, Venezuela. Principal investigator: Dr. Miguel Layrisse

Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University (INMU), Salaya Campus, c/o Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 4, Thailand. Principal investigator: Dr. Aree Valyasevi

Maternal and Child Health Services, Ministry of Health, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Loufti M. El-Sayyad

Nutrition Research and Development Centre, Komplek GIZI, Jalan Semboja, Bogor, Indonesia. Principal investigator: Dr. Darwin Karyadi institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Carretera Roosevelt, Zona 11, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Dr. Benjamin Torún

National Research Centre, National Academy of Sciences, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Sohair Salem

National Institute of Nutrition, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Mohammed A. Hussein

Biomedical Research Centre for Infectious Disease, Cairo, Egypt. Principal investigator: Dr. Aziz El Kholy

National Institute of Hygiene, Yungan Hsi-lee, Chien Kuo Men-wai, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Principal investigator: Dr. Chen-ting Chin

Beijing Medical College-UNICEF, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Principal investigator: Dr. Shiu-yun Liu


Division of Nutrition, National Institute of Nutrition, Calle Vasco de Quiroga No. 15 Col. y Deleg. Tialpan, 14,000 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. Principal investigator: Dr. Hector Bourges

Instituto de Nutrición y Technología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. Ricardo Uauy

Universidad del Valle, Departamento de Pediatría, Facultad de Medicina, Apartado Aereo 2188, Cali, Colombia. Principal investigator: Dr. Julio C. Reina


International Centre of Diarrhoeal Disease Research-B, GPO 128, Dhaka-2, Bangladesh. Principal investigator: Dr. Najma Rizvi

Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) (for Central America), PO Box 1188, Guatemala City, Guatemala. Principal investigator: Lic. Elena Hurtado

Instituto de Nutrición y Technología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 15138, Santiago 11, Chile. Principal investigator: Dr. María de la Luz Alvarez

Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, Colombia. Professor María E. Romero

UNICEF-Haiti, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Principal investigator: Dr. María D. Alvarez

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Department of Management Science, PO Box 131, Cheongryang, Seoul, Korea. Principal investigator: Dr. Kong-Kyun Ro

UNICEF-Pakistan, 58 Khauaban-e-lqbal, F-7/2, PO Box 1063,, Islamabad, Pakistan. Co-investigators: Farhat Sultana and Pamela Hunte

Instituto Peruanao de Seguridad Social, Lima, Peru. Principal investigator: Dr. Hernán Zegarra

Institute of Philippine Culture, Ateneo de Manila University, PO Box 154, Manila, 2801, Philippines. Principal investigator: Dr. Manuel Diaz

University of Lubumbashi, Zaire (Shaba Province). Principal investigator: Ngokwey Ndolamb


Dr. Nevin S.Scrimshaw, Director, Editor, Food And Nutrition Bulletin

Staff of the Sub-programme on Food, Nutrition, and Poverty
Mrs. Audrey Yuse, Administrative Assistant
Miss Jane Dittrich, Editorial Assistant.
Mrs. Elsie Kimi Buma, Secretary
Ms. Noriko Hasegawa, Secretary

* Part-time in the Cambridge office of the sub-programme: 20A-201, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA. Tel. (617) 253-7617. Cable: MIT CAM. Telex: 92-1473 MIT CAM.


The editors of the Food and Nutrition Bulletin welcome contributions of relevance to its concerns (see the statement of editorial policy on the inside of the back cover). Submission of an article does not guarantee publication—which depends on the judgement of the editors as to its relevance and quality.

Language. Contributions may be in English, French, or Spanish. If French or Spanish is used, the author should submit an abstract in English if possible.

Format. Contributions should be typed, double-spaced, preferably on A4 (210 x 297 mm) or American letter-size (81/2 x 11 in.) paper with margins of at least 2.5-3 cm (1-1 1/4. in.) on each side. (if larger paper must be used, the type area should be kept within the limits for A4 paper.)

Length. Ordinarily contributions should not exceed 4,000 words or an equivalent length in pages including figures, tables, and references.

Tables and figures. Any tables and figures should be on separate sheets of paper. Tables should use horizontal ruled lines only Figures should be clearly and accurately drawn and clearly labelled

Photographs. Ideally photographic material should be submitted in the form of black and white negatives or black and white glossy prints. Photographs will not be returned unless a specific request is made.

Units of measurement Preferably measurements should be expressed in metric units If other units are used, their metric equivalents should be indicated.

References. References should be listed at the end of the article, also double-spaced. A reference to a book or other separately published work should include full indication of the name(s) of the author(s), title of the work, and publisher and place and year of publication. A reference to an article in a book should include the name(s) of the author(s) of the article, title of the article, editor(s) of the book and title of the book, publisher and place and year of publication, and the page numbers of the article. A reference to an article in a journal should include the author(s), title of the article, name of the journal, volume and issue number and date, and page numbers of the article. Unpublished material should not be listed in the references.

Identification. Contributors should give their full name and official affiliation. If the material in the article has been previously presented or is planned to be published elsewhere— in the same or modified form—a note should be included giving the details.

Manuscript copies. The contributor should keep a duplicate copy of the manuscript. Manuscripts which are not accepted for publication will not be returned.

Contributions should be addressed to:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
The United Nations University
Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201
Cambridge, Mass. 02139, USA


La rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin recherche des articles traitant de sujets correspondant à ses thèmes. La remise d'un manuscrit ne signifie pas sa publication, qui dépend de l'opinion de la rédaction sur son intérêt et sa qualité.

Langues: Les manuscrits peuvent être rédigés en anglais, en français ou en espagnol, et dans ces deux derniers cas, l'auteur ajoutera, si possible, un résumé en anglais.

Format: Les manuscrits doivent être dactylographiés, en double interligne, de préférence sur du papier de format A4 (210 x 297 mm) avec des marges de 2,5 ou 3 cm de part et d'autre. (Si un papier plus grand doit être utilisé, on limitera la partie dactylographie au format A4).

Longueur: Les manuscrits ne doivent pas, ordinairement, dépasser 4 000 mots ou l’équivalent, en nombre de pages, s'il y a des figures, des tableaux et une bibliographie.

Tableaux et figures: Ils doivent être reportes sur des feuillets séparés. Les tableaux doivent être reproduits avec les partitions horizontales, mais non verticales. Les figures doivent être claires et précises, avec légendes explicites.

Photographies: En principe, les matériaux photographiques doivent être remis sous forme de négatifs noir et blanc sur papier brillant. Sauf demande expresse les photographies ne seront pas renvoyées.

Unités de mesure: On utilisera de préférence le système métrique. Si d'autres systèmes sont utilisés, l'équivalent métrique doit être indiqué.

Bibliographie: Elle doit figurer à la fin du manuscrit, en double interligne. La référence à un ouvrage ou à tous travaux déjà publiés doit comprendre une indication complète du nom du ou des auteurs, du titre, de la maison d'édition et de l'année de publication. La référence à une communication figurant dans un ouvrage doit comprendre le nom du ou des auteurs, le titre, le responsable de la publication et le titre de celle-ci, la maison d'édition, l'année de publication et la pagination de la communication. Une référence à un article figurant dans un périodique doit indiquer l'auteur ou les auteurs, le titre de l'article, le nom du périodique, le volume et le numéro, la date et la pagination. Ne renfermez pas les références des manuscrits inédits.

Identification: Les auteurs doivent indiquer leur nom complet et leur fonction officielle. Si l'article à déjà été remis auparavant ou est retenu pour une autre publication—sous la même forme ou sous une forme modifiée—on l'indiquera de façon détaillée.

Copies du manuscrit: L'auteur doit conserver un double.

Les manuscrits non publiés ne sont pas renvoyés. Les auteurs s'adresseront à la rédaction du Food and Nutrition Bulletin
United Nations University
Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA


Los editores del Food and Nutrition Bulletin agradecen el envío de contribuciones pertinentes al tema de la revista (vea la política editorial de esta revista en el interior de la tapa posterior). La presentación de un articulo no es garantía de su publicación, la cual dependerá del criterio de los editores en lo que respecta a su pertinencia y calidad.

Idioma. Las contribuciones podrán remitirse en los idiomas español, francés o inglés. En caso de utilizar español o francés, el autor deberá incluir, de ser posible, un resumen en inglés.

Formato. Las contribuciones deberán presentarse a doble espacio, mecanografiadas, preferiblemente en papeles A4 (210 x 297 mm), o tamaño carta estadounidense (8 1/2 x 11 pulgadas), con márgenes de por lo menos 2,5 - 3 cm (1 - 1 1/4 pulgadas) de cada lado. (Si se usa papel de mayor tamaño, la zona mecanografiada no deber exceder los I imites del papel A4).

Longitud Las contribuciones ordinarias no deberán exceder las 4.000 palabras o su longitud equivalente en páginas, inclusive cuadros, cifras y referencias.

Cuadros y cifras. Todos los cuadros y cifras deberán presentarse en hojas de papel por separado. Los cuadros deberán presentarse en forma clara y precisa y con rotulado legible. Las cifras utilizaran únicamente líneas horizontales.

Fotografías. Preferentemente se utilizará material fotográfico remitido bajo la forma de negativos de color blanco y negro o impresos brillantes en blanco y negro. De no mediar un pedido especial, no se devolverán las fotografías.

Unidades de medida Las medidas deberán expresarse preferentemente en unidades métricas. De utilizarse otras unidades, deberán indicarse sus equivalentes en el sistema métrico decimal.

Referencias Al final del articulo deberán consignarse las referencias, también en doble espacio. La referencia a un libro u otra obra publicada por separado deberá incluir indicación completa del nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores, titulo del trabajo, editorial y lugar y fecha de publicación. La referencia a un articulo de un libro deberá comprender el nombre o los nombres del autor o los autores del articulo, el titulo del mismo, editores del libro y titulo del mismo, editorial, lugar y fecha de publicación, y numeración de las páginas del articulo. La referencia a un articulo de una revista comprenderá nombres del autor o autores, titulo del articulo, nombre de la publicación, volumen y número y fecha, así como la numeración de las paginas del articulo. El material sin publicar no debe incluirse en las referencias.

Identificación. Los autores deberán consignar su nombre completo y la institución en que cumplen funciones. Si el material del articulo ha sido presentado previamente o se prevé su publicación en otra parte, en forma igual o modificada, se deberá agregar una nota con detalles sobre dicha publicación.

Copias manuscritas El contribuyente deberá conservar una copia o duplicado del manuscrito. No se devolverán los manuscritos que no se acepten para publicación.

Las contribuciones deberán dirigirse a:
The Editor
Food and Nutrition Bulletin
The United Nations University
Cambridge Programme Office
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 20-A-201
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA


Recent and Forthcoming UNU Publications on Food and Nutrition

Maternal Diet, Breast-feeding Capacity, and Lactational Infertility

The interrelations of maternal diet, lactation, and post-partum amenorrhoea are of major importance to maternal and child health, particularly in the Third World, affecting not only infant nutrition but also birth-spacing. This book recommends research in such areas as discrepancies between recommended dietary allowances during pregnancy and lactation and actual consumption levels, the response of a mother's capacity to produce milk where protein and energy deficiencies are limiting factors, and the range of breast-milk volumes produced by healthy, totally breast-feeding mothers and mothers with optimal management of their lactation.

WHTR-5/UNUP-338 ISBN 92-808-0338-7
107 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, US$9

The Use of Organic Residues in Rural Communities

Six papers in this report, the second in the applied microbiology series, discuss the application of fermentation technology to carbohydrate substrates for the production of materials suitable for human consumption, and another six deal with residues of potential importance as animal feeds. Alternative biological energy sources are considered, as is biotechnology for rural communities. Separate discussions on biogas, cellulosic wastes, and carbohydrate and other residues are also included.

IPWN-2/UNUP-362 ISBN 92-808-0362-X
177 pages, 16 5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, US$9

Methods for the Evaluation of the Impact of Food and Nutrition Programmes.

The major themes of this book are the questions of what measurements and indicators should be used to assess the impact of food and nutrition programmes and how and under what conditions they should be selected and used Emphasis is put on the importance of building internal evaluation procedures into every project from the planning stages onward, but realistic advice is also given on doing evaluations when inadequate data and financial restriction make rigorous procedures difficult

WHTR-6/UNUP-473 ISBN 92-808-0473-1
291 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, US$25

Interfaces between Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Food Science

This book aims at providing higher quality foods to improve people's nutritional status by developing strategies for more effective coordination between agricultural production and post-harvest technology and their impacts on human nutrition. It is the report of a workshop dealing specifically with South Aisa but focuses on food grains and legumes that form the staple diet of about 800 million people throughout the semi-arid tropics.

WHTR-7/UNUP-478 ISBN 92-808-0478-2
408 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, US$30

Protein-Energy Requirement Studies in Developing Countries: Results of International Research

This volume is the third report of research on the protein and energy needs of people in developing countries sponsored by the UNU in cooperation with FAO and WHO. It includes papers summarizing recent data from experimental studies in more than 15 countries, with a focus on the relevance of the research results to the general problem of estimating protein-energy requirements under conditions prevailing in developing countries

WHTR-8/UNUP-481 ISBN 92-808-0481-2
369 pages, 16.5 x 23.5 cm, paper-bound, US$25

How to Order Publications

A complete list of UNU publications is available from the University. Publications may be ordered by writing: Publications Section, Academic Services, The United Nations University, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1 Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan.

Microform Publishing: All UNU publications can be obtained on microfiche.


Food and Nutrition Bulletin Subscription Form

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Vol.1  Vol.2  Vol.3  Vol. 4  Vol. 5  Vol. 6 

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Individuals are requested to enclose payments with their orders. Prices quoted are subject to change without notice. Payments can be made in US dollars, Japanese yen, or Unesco coupons.

Send to: Publications Section, United Nations University, Toho Seimei Building, 15-1, Shibuya 2-chome, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan.



The Food and Nutrition Bulletin is intended to make available policy analyses, state-of-the-art summaries, and original scientific articles relating to multidisciplinary efforts to alleviate the problems of hunger and malnutrition in the developing world. It is not intended for the publication of scientific articles of principal interest only to individuals in a single discipline or within a single country or region. Notices of relevant books and other publications will be published if they are received for review. The Bulletin is also a vehicle for notices of forthcoming international meetings that satisfy the above criteria and for summaries of such meetings.

The Food and Nutrition Bulletin, successor to the PAG Bulletin of the former Protein-Calorie Advisory Group of the United Nations System, also serves as the principal outlet for the publication of reports of working groups and other activities of the UN ACC Subcommittee on Nutrition (SCN) and its Advisory Group on Nutrition The SCN itself is a focal point for co-ordinating activities of FAO, WHO, UNICEF, the UNU, Unesco, the World Bank,, the World Food Programme, the World Food Council, the United Nations Environment Programme, and other United Nations bodies with an interest in food and nutrition.

Unsolicited manuscripts of articles of the type published in this and previous issues may be sent to the Cambridge office of the Bulletin (see "Note for Contributors" elsewhere in this issue). Ail articles submitted will be reviewed promptly and the author will be notified of the editorial decision. Any disciplinary or conceptual approach relevant to problems of world hunger and malnutrition is welcomed, and controversy over some of the articles is anticipated. Letters to the editor are encouraged and will be printed if judged to have an adequate basis and to be of sufficient general interest.

It is expressly understood that articles published in the Bulletin do not necessarily represent the views of the United Nations University or of any United Nations organization. The views expressed and the accuracy of the information on which they are based are the responsibility of the authors. Some articles in the Bulletin are reports of various international committees and working groups and do represent the consensus of the individuals involved; whether or not they also represent the opinions or policies of the sponsoring organizations is expressly stated.




Purposes and structure

1. The United Nations University shall be an international community of scholars, engaged in research, post-graduate training and dissemination of knowledge in furtherance of the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. In achieving its stated objectives, it shall function under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (hereinafter referred to as UNESCO), through a central programming and coordinating body and a network of research and post-graduate training centres and programmes located in the developed and developing countries.

2. The University shall devote its work to research into the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations and its agencies, with due attention to the social sciences and the humanities as well as natural sciences, pure and applied.

3. The research programmes of the institutions of the University shall include, among other subjects, coexistence between peoples having different cultures, languages and social systems: peaceful relations between States and the maintenance of peace and security; human rights; economic and social change and development; the environment and the proper use of resources; basic scientific research and the application of the results of science and technology in the interests of development; and universal human values related to the improvement of the quality of life.

4. The University shall disseminate the knowledge gained in its activities to the United Nations and its agencies, to scholars and to the public, in order to increase dynamic interaction in the world-wide community of learning and research.

5. The University and all those who work in it shall act in accordance with the spirit of the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and the Constitution of UNESCO and with the fundamental principles of contemporary international law.

6. The University shall have as a central objective of its research and training centres and programmes the continuing growth of vigorous academic and scientific communities everywhere and particularly in the developing countries, devoted to their vital needs in the fields of learning and research within the framework of the aims assigned to those centres and programmes in the present Charter. It shall endeavour to alleviate the intellectual isolation of persons in such communities in the developing countries which might otherwise become a reason for their moving to developed countries.

7. In its post-graduate training the University shall assist scholars, especially young scholars, to participate in research in order to increase their capability to contribute to the extension, application and diffusion of knowledge. The University may also undertake the training of persons who will serve in international or national technical assistance programmes, particularly in regard to an interdisciplinary approach to the problems with which they will be called upon to deal.


Academic freedom and autonomy

1. The University shall enjoy autonomy within the framework of the United Nations. It shall also enjoy the academic freedom required for the achievement of its objectives, with particular reference to the choice of subjects and methods of research and training, the selection of persons and institutions to share in its tasks, and freedom of expression. The University shall decide freely on the use of the financial resources allocated for the execution of its functions....

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