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Amsden, A. (1983), 'De-skilling, Skilled Commodities and the NICs' Emerging Competitive Advantage', American Economic Review, Vol. 73, No. 2.

Bell, C., Hazell, and Slade, R. (1982), Project Evaluation in Regional Perspective, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Bennett, J.M. and Kalman, R.E. (eds) (1981), Computers in Developing Nations, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Bessant, J. and Cole, S. (1985), Stacking the Chips, Frances Pinter, London.

Bhalla, A. and James, D. (eds) (1986), New Technology Applications in Traditional Sectors, international Labour Organization, Geneva.

Bhalla, A. and James, D. (eds) (1988), New Technologies and Development: Experiences in 'Technology Blending', Lynne Rienner, London.

Bhalla, A., James, D. and Stevens, Y. (1984), Blending of New and Traditional Technologies: Case Studies, Tycooly Publishers, Dublin.

Bhalla, A.S. and James, J. (1986), 'New Technology Revolution: Myth or Reality for Developing Countries?', in Hall (1986).

Binswanger, H. (1980), 'Income Distribution Effects of Technical Change: Some Analytic Issues', The South East Asian Economic Review, Vol. 1, No. 3.

Binswanger, H. and Ruttan, V. (1978), Induced Innovation, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.

Birdsall, N. (1984), 'Population Growth and the Structural Transformation of the Labor Force', Paper prepared for Conference on Population Growth and Labour Absorption in the Developing World 1960 - 2000, Bellagio, July.

Boon, G.K. (1986a), The Interrelated Impact of Microelectronic Technology on the First, Second and Third World, The Technology Scientific Foundation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Boon, G.K. (1986b), Computer Based Techniques: Diffusion, Impact, Policy in the South-North Perspective, Parts A and B. Draft final report, The Technology Scientific Foundation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands.

Carroll, T. Owen (1985), 'The Use of Microcomputer in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries', in Munasinghe et al. (1985).

Castells, M. and Tyson, L. (1988), 'High-Technology Choices Ahead: Restructuring Interdependence', in J. Sewell et al. (eds), Growth, Exports and Jobs in a Changing World Economy. Agenda 1988, Transaction Books, New Brunswick.

Caves, R.E. (1982), Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Chenery, H. and Keesing, D. (1979), 'The Changing Composition of Developing Country Exports', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 314, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Chudnovsky, D. (1984), 'The Diffusion of Electronics Technology in Developing Countries: Capital Goods Sector: The Argentinian Case', Working Paper R 641, Centro de Economía Transnacional, Buenos Aires.

Clarke, J. and Cable, V. (1982), 'The Asian Electronics Industry Looks to the Future', IDS Bulletin, Vol. 13, No. 2.

Commonwealth Secretariat (1985), Technological Change, Enhancing the Benefits, Vols I and II, Commonwealth Secretariat, London.

Correa, C. (1985), 'Trends in Commercialization of Software in Developing Countries', UNIDO Report No. IS.574, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Correa, C. (1989), 'Informatics in Latin America: Promises and Realities', Journal of World Trade Law, April.

Dahlman C., et al. (1985), 'Managing Technological Development', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 718, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Damachi, U., et al. (1987), Computers and Computer Applications in Developing Nations, Macmillan, London.

Davies, S. (1979), The Diffusion of Process Innovations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Degefu, G. (1985), 'Development of Electronics in Ethiopia', UNIDO Report No. ID/WG.437/2, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Deolalikar, A.B. and Sundaram, A.R. (1989), 'Technology Choice, Adaption and Diffusion in Private- and State-owned Enterprises in India', in James (1989).

Dominguez-Villalobos, L. (1988), 'Microelectronics-based Innovations and Employment in Mexican Industries', ILO Technology and Employment Programme Working Paper No. 183, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Edquist, C. and Jacobsson, S. (1988), Flexible Automation, Blackwell, Oxford.

Edquist, C., Jacobsson, S. and Jethanandani, K. (1985), 'Automation in Engineering Industries of India and Republic of Korea', Economic and Political Weekly, 13 April.

Erber, F. (1985), 'The Development of the "Electronics Complex" and Government Policies in Brazil', in Hoffman (1985a).

Ernst, D. (1983), The Global Race in Microelectronics, Innovation and Corporate Strategies in a Period of Crisis, MIT, Campus, Frankfurt a.M. and New York.

Ernst, D. (1985), Automation, Employment and the Third World-the Case of the Electronics Industry, Institute of Social Studies and IDPAD, The Hague.

ESCAP (1979), 'Transnational Corporations in the Consumer Electronics Industry of Developing ESCAP Countries', UN Working Paper No. 5, January.

Evens, P.B. (1985), 'State, Capital and the Transformation of Dependence: The Brazilian Computer Case', Working Paper No. 6. Department of Sociology, Brown University.

Evans, P. and Tigre, P.B. (1989), 'Going beyond Clones in Brazil and Korea: A Comparative Analysis of NIC Strategies in the Computer Industry', World Development, Vol. 17, No. 11.

Fleury, A. (1989), 'The Technological Behaviour of State-Owned Enterprises in Brazil', in James (1989).

Fransman, M. (1986a), Technology and Economic Development, Wheatsheaf Books Ltd., Brighton.

Fransman, M. (1986b), 'International Competitiveness, Technical Change, and the State: The Machine Tool Industry in Taiwan and Japan', World Development, Vol. 14, No. 11, November.

Göransson, B. (1984), 'Enhancing National Technological Capability-The Case of Telecommunications in Brazil', Discussion Paper No. 158. Research Policy Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.

Grieco, J.M. (1984), Between Dependency and Autonomy. India's Experience with the International Computer Industry, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hagen, E.E. (1982), 'Technological Disemployment and Economic Growth', Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 10.

Hagen, E.E. (1985), 'More on the Employment Effects of Innovation-More than a Response', Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 17.

Hall, P. (ed.) (1986), Technology, Innovation and Economic Policy, Philip Allan, Oxford.

Hall, P. and Heffernan, S. (1985), 'More on the Employment Effects of Innovation', Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 17.

Hawkins, A.M. (1986), 'Can Africa Industrialize?', in R. Berg and J. Whitaker (eds), Strategies for African Development, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Henderson, J. (1989), The Globalisation of High Technology Production, Routledge, London.

Hewitt, T.R. (1988), 'Employment and Skills in the Electronics Industry: The Case of Brazil', D. Phil. Thesis, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Hirschman, A. (1967), Development Projects Observed, The Brookings Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Hobday, M. (1986a), 'Telecommunications - A "Leading Edge" in the Accumulation of Digital Technology? Evidence from the Case of Brazil', Information Technology for Development, Vol. I, No. I.

Hobday, M. (1986b), 'Digital Telecommunications Technology and the Third World: The Theory, the Challenge, and the Evidence from Brazil', D. Phil. Thesis, University of Sussex, Brighton.

Hoffman, K. (1984), 'Managing Technological Change: The Impact and Policy Implications of Microelectronics', Report to Commonwealth Secretariat Working Group, London.

Hoffman, K. (ed.) (1985a), Special Issue of World Development, Vol. 13, No. 3, March.

Hoffman, K. (1985b), 'Microelectronics, International Competition and Development Strategies: The Unavoidable Issues', in Hoffman (1985a).

Hoffman, K. and Kaplinsky, R. (1988), Driving Force: The Global Restructuring of Technology, Labour, and Investment in the Automobile and Components Industries, Westview, Boulder, Colorado.

Hoffman, K. and Rush, H. (1988), Micro-electronics and Clothing, Praeger, New York.

Hood, N. and Young, S. (1979), The Economics of Multinational Enterprise, Longman, New York.

Humbert, M. (1988), 'Global Study on World Electronics', UNIDO Report No. ID/WG. 478/2 (SPEC), United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Ironmonger, D. (1972), New Commodities, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Jacobsson, S. (1986), Electronics and Industrial Policy. The Case of Computer Controlled Lathes, Allen and Unwin, London.

Jacobsson, S. and Sigurdson, J. (eds) (1983), Technological Trends and Challenges in Electronics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

James, J. (1985), 'The Employment and Income Distributional Impact of Microelectronics: A Prospective Analysis for the Third World', World Employment Programme, Research Working Paper, No. 153, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

James J. (1987a), 'Population and Technical Change in the Manufacturing Sector of Developing Countries', in D. Gale Johnson and R.D. Lee (eds), Population Growth and Development: Issues and Evidence, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

James, J. (1987b), 'Positional Goods, Conspicuous Consumption and the International Demonstration Effect Reconsidered', World Development, Vol. 15, No. 4.

James, J. (1988), 'The Output and Employment Impact of Microelectronics in the Third World', in Wad (1988).

James, J. (ed.) (1989), The Technological Behaviour of Public Enterprises in Developing Countries, Routledge, London.

James, J. and Stewart, F. (1981), 'New Products: A Discussion of the Welfare Effects of the Introduction of New Products in Developing Countries', Oxford Economic Papers, March.

Johnston, B. and Kilby, P. (1975), Agriculture and Structural Transformation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Junne, G. (ed.) (1986), 'New Technologies and Third World Development', Special Issue of Vierteljahresberichte: Problems of International Cooperation, No. 103, Friedrich-Ebert Foundation, Bonn.

Kaplinsky, R. (1982a), Computer Aided Design: Electronics, Comparative Advantage and Development, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Kaplinsky, R. (ed.) (1982b), Comparative Advantage in an Automating World, Special Issue of IDS Bulletin, Vol . 13, No. 2, March.

Kaplinsky, R. (1984), Automation, the Technology and Society, Longman, Harlow.

Kaplinsky, R. (1985), 'Electronics-based Automation Technologies and the Onset of Systemofacture: Implications for Third World Industrialisation', in Hoffman (1985a)

Kaplinsky, R. (1986), 'Technological Change, Employment and Comparative Advantage', Unpublished Report, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.

Kaplinsky, R. (1987), Microelectronics and Employment-A Review of Evidence, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Kaplinsky, R. (1989), '"Technological Revolution" and the International Division of Labour in Manufacturing: A Place for the Third World', European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Kaplinsky, R. (1990), The Economies of Small: Appropriate Technology in a Changing World, IT Publications, London.

Keesing, D. (1979), 'World Trade and Output of Manufactures: Structural Trends and Developing Countries' Exports', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 316, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Kelley, A., Williamson, I. and Cheetham, R. (1972), Dualistic Economic Development, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Khanna, A. (1986), 'Issues in the Technological Development of China's Electronics Sector', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 762, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Lahera, E. and Nochteff, H. (1983), 'Microelectronics and Latin American Development', Cepal Review, No. 19, April.

Lall, Sanjaya (1983), The Multinational Corporation, Macmillan, London.

Landes, D.S. (1969), The Unbound Prometheus, Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Leontief, W. and Duchin, F. (1985), The Future Impacts of Automation on Workers, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Lipton, M. and Longhurst, R. (1989), New Seeds and Poor People, Unwin Hyman, London.

Maxwell, P. (1983), 'Specialisation Decisions in Electronic Production-Lessons from the Experience of Two Argentine Firms', in Jacobsson and Sigurdson (1983).

Mody, A. (1989), 'Strategies for Developing Information Industries'. The European Journal of Development Research, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Mody, A. and Wheeler, D. (1990), Automation and World Competition, Macmillan, London.

Munasinghe, M. (ed.) (1989), Computers and Informatics in Developing Countries, Butterworths, London.

Munasinghe, M., Dow, M. and Fritz, J. (eds) (1985), Microcomputers for Development: Issues and Policy, Cintec-Nas Publication.

Narasimhan, R. (1984), 'Guidelines for Software Development in Developing Countries', Report No. UNIDO/IS.439, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Narasimhan, R. (1985), 'The UNIDO Programme on Microelectronics: An Analytical Perspective', Report No. UNIDO/IS.529, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Nayyar, D. (1978), 'Transnational Corporations and Manufactured Exports from Poor Countries', The Economic Journal, Vol. 88, March.

Nochteff, H. (1985), 'Government Policies for the Data Processing Industries in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico', UNIDO Report No. ID/WG.440/7 and Corr.2, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Northcott, J. (1985), 'Microelectronics in Mexico: Applications in Mexico', UNIDO/IS, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna

Obudho, R.A. and Taylor, D.R.F. (eds) (1977), The Computer and Africa. Applications, Problems and Potential, Praeger, New York.

O'Connor, D. (1985a), 'The Computer Industry in the Third World: Some Policy Options and Constraints', in Hoffman (1985a).

O'Connor, D. (1985b), 'Global Trends in Electronics: Implications for Developing Countries', Unpublished Report, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

O'Connor, D. (1989), 'Microelectronics-based Innovations: Strategic Implications for Selected Industries in the Second-tier Newly Industrialising Countries (NICs) of Southeast Asia', OECD Development Centre, Paris.

Onn, Fong Chan (1989), 'Employment and Income Implications of Microelectronic Industrial Machinery in ASEAN: The Case of Malaysia/Singapore', ILO Technology and Employment Programme, Working Paper No. 202, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Palafox, J. and Casel, J. (1985), 'The Impact of New Technology on Employment in Selected Banking Electronics and Telecommunications Establishments in Metro Manila', Institute of Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines, Quezon City.

Perez, C. (1985), 'Microelectronics, Long Waves and World Structural Change: New Perspectives for Developing Countries', in Hoffman (1985a).

Pesik, R.J. (1981), 'Computerisation in Indonesia', in Bennett and Kalman (1981).

Plesch, P. (1979), Developing Countries' Exports of Electronics and Electrical Engineering Products, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Pyo, H.K. (1986), 'The Impact of Microelectronics Technologies on Employment and Indigenous Technological Capability in the Republic of Korea', ILO Technology and Employment Programme, Working Paper No. 172, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Rada, J. (1980), The Impact of Microelectronics: A Tentative Appraisal of Information Technology, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Reuber, G.L. et al. (1973), Private Foreign Investment in Development, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Rogers, E. (1983), The Diffusion of Innovations, 3rd edn, The Free Press, New York.

Rosenberg, N. (1988), 'New Technologies and Old Debates', in Bhalla and lames (1988).

Sabel, Charles F. (1984), 'Yeoman Economics and Modern Technology: Rediscovering an Alternative Path to Industrialisation', Paper presented at the Conference on Economic Development and Democracy, Helen Kellogh Institute for International Studies, April.

Schmitz, H. (1985), 'Micro-electronics: Implications for Employment, Outwork, Skills and Wages', IDS Discussion Paper No. 205, June, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, U.K.

Schmitz, H. (1990), 'Flexible Specialisation in Third World Industry: Prospects and Research Requirements', Industrialisation Seminar Paper No. 90/5, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.

Schmitz, H. and De Quadros Carvalho, R. (1987), 'Automation and Labour in the Brazilian Car Industry', IDS Discussion Paper, No. 239, December, Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, U.K.

Schware, R. and Trembour, A. (1985), 'Rethinking Microcomputer Technology Transfer to Third World Countries', Science and Public Policy, Vol. 1, No. 1, February.

Scobie, G.M. (1979), 'Investment in International Agricultural Research: Some Economic Dimensions', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 361, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Sigurdson, J. (1983), 'Forces of Technological Change', in Jacobsson and Sigurdson (1983).

Sigurdson, J. and Bhargava, P. (1983), 'The Challenge of the Electronics Industry in China and India', in Jacobsson and Sigurdson (1983).

Soete, L. (1985), 'International Diffusion of Technology, Industrial Development and Technological Leapfrogging', in Hoffman (1985a).

Stern, J. and Lewis, 1. (1980), 'Employment Patterns and Economic Growth', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 419, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Stewart, F. (1982), 'Industrialisation, Technical Change and the International Division of Labour', in G.K. Helleiner (ed.), For Good or Evil, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Stewart, F. (1987), Macro-policies for Appropriate Technology, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Stoneman, P. (1983), The Economic Analysis of Technical Change, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Tauile, J. (1984), 'Employment Effects of Micro-electronic Equipment in the Brazilian Automobile Industry', ILO World Employment Programme Research, Working Paper No. 131, International Labour Organization, Geneva.

Teitel, S. (1984), 'Technology Creation in Semi-Industrial Economies', Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 16.

Tech, S.T. and Raja I. Rasiah (1984), The Use of a Microcomputer System at District Level Health Services, Dept. of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

Tigre, P. (1983), Technology and Competition in the Brazilian Computer Industry, Frances Pinter, London.

Tottle, G. (1984), 'The Computer and Agricultural Management', Far Eastern Agriculture, May/June.

UNCTAD (1984), 'New and Emerging Technologies: Some Economic, Commercial and Developmental Aspects', UNCTAD Report TD/B/C.6/120, 2 August, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

UNCTC (1987), 'Transnational Corporations and the Electronics Industries of ASEAN Economies', UNCTC Current Studies Series A, No. 5.

UNDP/ILO (1982), 'Toward a National Computer Policy in Sri Lanka', Report of the United Nations Development Program/International Labour Organization Team, Colombo.

Vernon, R. (1973), 'The Location of Economic Activity', Unpublished Report, Harvard Business School, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Wad, A. (1982), 'Microelectronics: Implications and Strategies for the Third World', Third World Quarterly, October.

Wad, A. (ed.) (1988), Science, Technology and Development, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado.

Wheeler, D. and Mody, A. (1988), 'Risks and Rewards in International Location Tournaments: The Case of US Firms', Unpublished Manuscript.

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