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Annotated bibliography

Alexander, M. (1985), 'Ecological Consequences: Reducing the Uncertainties', Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 57-68.

Examines a number of hypotheses that have been proposed in assessing the risks associated with biotechnology. Goes on to propose a method for risk assessment and concludes that further research is necessary to examine rigorously the ecological consequences.

Assaad, F. (1985), 'World Health Organization's Programme for Vaccine Development', Unpublished Report, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 1-10.

Examines inter alia the relevance of recombinant DNA and cell fusion technology for the development of vaccines.

Beier, F.K., Crespi, R.S. and Straus, J. (1985), Bio-Technology and Patent Protection.. An International Review, OECD, Paris.

Provides a background discussion on patents and biotechnology and reports on the results of a survey of OECD countries regarding differences in their patent systems. Ends with a number of recommendations for changes in patent legislation.

Bhalla, A.S. and James J. (1984), 'New Technology Revolution: Myth or Reality for Developing Countries?', Greek Economic Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 387423.

Examines the relevance of new technologies, including biotechnology, for developing countries. Concludes that biotechnology has important implications.

Bifani, P. (1968), 'Biotechnology for Agricultural and Food Production in Africa', Unpublished Report, International Labour Office,.

Examines the applicability of tissue culture, nitrogen fixation bioprocessing, and single cell protein production in the context of African countries.

Bifani, P. (1986), 'New Biotechnology for Food Production in Developing Countries with Special Reference to Cuba and Mexico', Unpublished Report, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Discusses the application of biotechnologies to food production in developing countries, with special reference to the production of single cell proteins.

Birch, J.R. et al. (1985), 'Large Scale Production of Monoclonal Antibodies', Paper presented at the Biotech 85 Conference, Washington, D.C., October.

This paper, written by employees of Celltech (UK), discusses inter alia the importance of economies of scale, media design, and separation technology.

Borrus, M. and Millstein, J. (1984), 'A Comparison of the US Semiconductor Industry and Biotechnology', Paper prepared for the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment and used under this title in Appendix C of Office of Technology Assessment (1984), Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis, U. S. Congress, Washington, D.C.

An authoritative source for the comparison of the semiconductor and biotechnology industries.

Bull, A.T., Holt, G. and Lilly, M.D. (1982), Biotechnology. International Trends and Perspectives, OECD, Paris.

One of the major early studies, this book also surveys research priorities.

Butler, L.J. and Marion, B.W. (1985), The Impacts of Patent Protection on the US Seed Industry and Public Plant Breeding, N.C. Project 117, Monograph 16, Research Division, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Examines the impact of the Plant Variety Protection Act (1970) in response to a request by the U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee after hearings on amendments to this Act held in 1980. Concludes that the Act has resulted in modest private and public benefits at modest public and private costs.

Buttel, F.H. (1986), 'Biotechnology and Public Agricultural Research Policy: Emergent Issues', in Dahlberg, K.A. (ed.) (1986), New Directions for Agriculture and Agriculture Research, Rowman and Allanheld, Totowa, New Jersey.

Examines the impact of biotechnology including a comparison with the Green Revolution and the implications for the Third World.

Buttel, F.H. (1986), 'Biotechnology and Public Agriculture Research Policy', Unpublished Manuscript, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Examines the implications for the public sector, including the U.S. Land Grant Colleges, of the increasing tendency for the privatization of biotechnological knowledge.

Buttel, F.H. and Kenney, M. (1985), 'Biotechnology and International Development: Prospects for Overcoming Dependence in the Information Age', Bulletin No. 143, Dept. of Rural Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Argues that while biotechnology has the potential to benefit Third World countries and improve the material situation of the majority of their populations, its development in these countries is likely to be constrained by social and political factors. The result is that ties of dependence will tend to be reproduced.

Buttel, F.H., Kloppenburg, J. and Belsky, J. (1985a), 'Biotechnology, Plant Breeding, and Intellectual Property: Social and Ethical Dimensions', Unpublished Manuscript, Department of Rural Sociology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Examines the increasing privatization of plant breeding technology in the U.S. and discusses the implications.

Chemical and Engineering News (1984), 'Chief Scientist Schneiderman: Monsanto's Love Affair with R&D', December, 24.

Examines the new increased role of R&D in Monsanto, particularly in the biological sciences, as the company restructures its activities away from its traditional area of commodity chemicals.

Chesnais, F. (1986), 'Some Notes on Technical Cumulativeness, the Appropriation of Technology and Technological Progressiveness in Concentrated Market Structures', Unpublished Manuscript.

Contains tables giving information on biotechnology agreements signed by Western and Japanese companies.

Cowan, J.T. (1986), 'An Emerging Structure of Technological Domination: Biotechnology, the Organisation of Agricultural Research, and the Third World', International Journal of Contemporary Sociology (forthcoming).

Examines current trends in the application of biotechnology in agriculture and concludes that the ability of Third World countries to benefit from these developments is limited by their lack of capacity to influence the activities of agribusiness transnational corporations.

Crespi, R.S. (1985), 'Microbiological Inventions and the Patent Law -The International Dimension', Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews, Vol. 3.

Surveys the current legal situation with regard to the patenting of microbiological inventions.

Daly, P. (1985), The Biotechnology Business: A Strategic Analysis, Frances Pinter, London.

Takes a strategic view based largely on the work of Porter in examining the experience of large firms and new biotechnology firms in the area of biotechnology.

Dingell, J.D., 'Benefits for the Developing World', Biotechnology, Vol. 3.

Argues that the development of biotechnology in the U.S. is not favourable to the long term interest of Third World countries. Suggests that a programme for biotechnology be created analogous to the orphan drug programme to ensure that the absence of short-term profit does not prevent the development of socially useful applications of biotechnology.

Doyle, J. (1985), Altered Harvests. Agriculture, Genetics and the Fate of the World's Food Supply, Viking, New York.

Examines the potential positive and negative effects of biotechnology in agriculture.

Elkington, J.B. (1984), 'Cloning of Palm Trees in Malaysia', in Blending of New Traditional Technologies. Case Studies, International Labour Office, Geneva.

Examines the application of tissue culture technology in Malaysia.

Fortune (1984), 'Monsanto's Brave New World', 30 April.

Analyses the new strategies being adopted by Monsanto which has been forced by declining profits to move away from its traditional base in commodity chemicals. Documents the company's move into biotechnology.

Hardy, R.W.F. and Glass, D.J. (1985), 'Our Investment: What is at Stake?', Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 69-82.

Argues from the point of view of private industry that the risks of biotechnology are not very great and that the U.S.'s competitive position could be harmed by too tight a regulatory framework.

Humphrey, A.E. (1982), 'Biotechnology: The Way Ahead', J. Chem. Techn. Biotechnol., Vol. 32, pp. 25-33.

Argues that biotechnology opportunities have arisen out of crisis-oriented problems and looks at the implications of advances in related areas such as computer-aided automation.

Klyosov, A.A. (1984), 'Enzymatic Conversion of Cellulosic Materials to Sugars and Alcohol: The Technology and its Implications', Report No. UNIDO/IS/476, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

A useful and detailed survey of the research that has been done worldwide in this area and the policy implications for developing countries. Concludes that acid and enzymatic hydrolysis process hold the most promise.

Lesser, W. (1986), Patenting Seeds: What to Expect', Unpublished Report, Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. Discusses the likely effects of the legislation passed in September 1985 according to which open pollinated seeds become patentable. Concludes that seed patents are likely to provide moderate private and social benefits at moderate costs.

Lewis, H.W. (1984), Biotechnology in Japan, National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C., (p. 84.

A detailed examination of the state of biotechnology in Japan in 1984. Examines also the role played by the universities in basic and applied research and the part played by government, particularly MITI, in stimulating the advance and diffusion of biotechnology. Concludes inter alia, that the MITI-established research association has not facilitated much genuinely cooperative research.

Lipton, M. and Longhurst, R. (1986), 'Modern Varieties, International Agricultural Research and the Poor', Consultative Group in International Agricultural Research, Study Paper No. 2.

Argues that 'The big-economic impact of modern varieties should be specially favourable to smaller farmers, hired workers, and poor consumers, yet much of this "pro poor potential" has been lost due to a) insertion of modern varieties into social systems favouring urban groups and the big farmers who supply them, b) demographic dynamics making labour cheaper relative to land, and c) research structures practicing fashionable topics rather than genuine needs of the poor'.

Mang-ke Q. and Yong-Hui, L. (1986), 'Biotechnology in China: Walking on Two Legs', Biotechnology, Vol. 4.

Examines the state of Chinese biotechnology outlining both areas of specialization and weakness.

McConnell D.J., Riazuddin, S., Wu, R. and Zilinskas, R.A. (1986), 'Capability Building in Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering in Developing Countries', Report No. UNIDO/IS 608, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Provides an interesting account of the background to the establishment of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Discusses some of the requirements for building biocapabilities in developing countries.

McGarity, T.O. (1985), 'Regularity, Biotechnology', Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 40-56.

Argues that the potential hazard from the application of biotechnology is great and examines the regulatory framework in the U.S.

Magrath, W.B. and Tamur, L.W. (1985), 'The Economic Impact of bGH on the New York State Dairy Sector: Comparative Static Results', Cornell Agricultural Economics Staff Paper 85-22, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Uses a partial equilibrium framework in order to examine under a number of different technical assumptions the impact of bovine growth hormones on milk price, milk output, farm and cow numbers.

Nayudamma, Y. (1985), 'An Alternative Pathway for Industrialisation: A Biomass-based Strategy', Report No. UNIDO/IS/-532, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Discusses the policies that are necessary, and the alternatives that exist, in implementing a biomass-based industrialization strategy.

Oviatt, V.R. (1982), 'Biotechnology-An International Viewpoint', in Whelan, W.J. and Black, S. (eds) (1982), From Genetic Engineering to Biotechnology -The Critical Transition, Wiley, London.

Argues that there are no unique or special risks associated with recombinant DNA research and discusses the WHO's safety measures in microbiology programmes.

Perpich, J.G. (1985), 'Export Controls on Biotechnology', Biotechnology, Vol. 3. Argues for biotechnology export rules which do not interfere with international exchanges on which the scientific community and the biotechnology industry depend.

Sakaguchi, K. (1972), Historical Background of Industrial Fermentation in Japan', in Terui, G. (ed.) (1972), Fermentation Technology Today, Society of Fermentation Technology, Japan.

Analyses the development of fermentation technology in Japan starting with soybean paste and sake.

Scobie, C.M. (1979), 'Investment in International Agricultural Research: Some Economic Dimensions', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 361, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Examines the impact of Green Revolution research on output growth, income distribution, employment and nutrition.

Sargeant, K. (1984), 'Biotechnology in Japan', Unpublished Report, CUBE, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

Reports on a two-week visit to Japan in March 1984 at the invitation of MITI.

Sharp, M. (1986), 'National Policies Towards Biotechnology', Unpublished Report, Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.

Examines policy in the U.S., Japan and major European countries towards biotechnology

Steinkraus, K.A. (1984), 'Biotechnology Applications to some African Fermented Foods', in Blending of New and Traditional Technologies, ILO, Geneva.

Using a wide definition of biotechnology, examines the traditional use of microorganisms mainly in the fermentation of beer.

Sun, M. (1986), 'UN Biotechnology Centre Mired in Politics', Science, Vol. 231, February.

Examines the political background to the establishment of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology by UNIDO in Trieste and New Delhi.

Tanaka, S. (1985), 'Japan's Policy for High Technology: The Case of Biotechnology', Unpublished Report, Cornell University, Department of Government, Ithaca, New York, p. 54.

Examines the strengths and weaknesses of Japanese biotechnology and the role of various government ministries and programmes in promoting biotechnology.

Tauer, L.W. (1985), 'The Impact of Bovine Growth Hormone on the New York Dairy Sector: An Example using Sector Linear Programming', Cornell Agricultural Economics Staff Paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, p. 17.

Examines the impact of bovine growth hormone under a number of conditions on: number of farms, milk prices, milk output, and dairy income.

UNIDO ( 1985), Biotechnology in Agriculture: Evolving a Research Agenda for the ICGEB, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Proceedings of an international workshop to help develop a biotechnology programme in agriculture for the New Delhi component of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology.

UNIDO (1986), Preparatory committee on the establishment of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (Eighth Session), Vienna, June, ICGEB/PREP COMM/8/10, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Refers to the appointment of Professor I.C. Gunsalus as Director of the ICGEB and some of the related initial decisions taken.

UNIDO (1986a), Report of specialized workshop, prepared by the UNIDO Secretariat, ICGEB/PREP Comm/18/2/ADD3, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Presents the main conclusions of the International Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology workshops on biotechnology and industrial commodities held in Trieste in March. The workshop examined possible priorities for research for the Trieste part of the UCGEB. The priorities for the New Delhi part are discussed in a separate publication (ICGEB/PREP COMM/7/2/ADD3). The paper also defines the required 'basic capabilities' needed to support all scientific aspects of the ICGEB's research.

UNIDO (Various), Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Monitor, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Summary of current biotechnology news taken from many of the major biotechnology publications.

UNIDO Secretariat (1985), 'The Promise of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering for Africa', Report No. UNIDO/IS/513, Secretariat of United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

A general paper giving an account of possible application areas in African countries. Does not go beyond a very general level.

UNIDO Secretariat ( 1986), 'The Role of UNIDO in Technological Advances in the Latin American-Caribbean Area', United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Analyses the role of UNIDO in microelectronics and biotechnology in the Latin American-Caribbean area.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1984), 'Commercial Biotechnology: An International Analysis', Report No. OTA-BA-218, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

A major comparative report assessing the international competitiveness of U.S. biotechnology.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1986), 'Public Policy and the Changing Structure of American Agriculture', Report No. OTA-F-285, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

A major report assessing the combined effects of biotechnology and information technology on U.S. agriculture.

U.S. Department of Commerce (1985a), 'Biotechnology in Japan', Unpublished Report, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., 12 pp.

A preliminary investigation of biotechnology in Japan drawing attention, inter alia, to Japanese strength in fermentation and downstream processing and to the importance of Japanese research contracts with U.S. firms and universities.

U.S. Department of Commerce (1985b), Biotechnology in Japan, Japanese Technology Evaluation Program, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.

Contains evaluations by a number of U.S. scientists of Japanese developments in the following areas: biochemical process technology; biosensors; cell culture; protein engineering; recombinant DNA technology. Concludes, inter alia, that the U.S. faces its most serious competitive challenge from Japan, particularly from the large companies with a strong base in conventional biotechnologies (e.g. fermentation) and longer planning horizons.

Warhurst, A. (1985), 'Biotechnology for Mining: The Potential of an Emerging Technology, the Andean Pact Copper Project and some Policy Implications', Development and Change, Vol . 16, pp. 93-121.

A study of the development of bacterial leaching in Andean Pact countries.

World Health Organization (1983), 'Quality Control and Biologicals Produced by Recombinant DNA Techniques', Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 61, No. 6, pp. 897-911.

Outlines the tests that would be appropriate for the control of the safety and efficiency of recombinant DNA products in the pharmaceutical industry.

World Health Organization (1983), Laboratory Biosafety Manual, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Provides guidelines and details regarding appropriate laboratory practice and management.

World Health Organization (1984), 'Health Impact of Biotechnology', Report on a WHO Working Group, Dublin, November 1982, Swiss Biotech, No. 5.

Examines the risk of accidental production or escape of pathogens. Concludes that the risks are small provided reasonable safety measures are followed.

Yanchinski, S. (1985), Getting Genes to Work. The Industrial Era of Biotechnology, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

A general introduction to biotechnology.

Yanchinsky, S. (1986), 'Spearhead of a Second Green Revolution', Financial Times, 17 September.

Discusses the implications of new rice varieties developed by the International Rice Research Institute and the relevance of new biotechnologies.

Yuan, R. (1985), 'Interim Report on Biotechnology in France', Unpublished Report, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C.

Examines the state and international competitiveness of biotechnology in France and concludes that due to fragmentation, isolation and the small size of research units, French biotechnology does not in general pose a threat to the competitive position of the U.S.

For further reading

Barnes, B. (1977), Interests and the Growth of Knowledge, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London

Barnes, B. (1982), T.S. Kuhn and Social Science, Macmillan, London.

Bennett, D., Glasnor, P. and Travis, D. (1986), The Politics of Uncertainty: Regulating recombinant DNA research in Britain, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Cantley, M.F. (1983), Plan by Objective: Biotechnology, European Commission FAST Project, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

Chandler, A.D. (1977), The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Chandley, A.D. (1962), Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the American Industrial Enterprise, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Commission of the European Communities, Developments in the Biotechnology Industry. Prospects for US-EC Co-operation, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

Coombs, J. (1984), The International Biotechnology Directory, Macmillan, Basingstoke.

Cooper, C. (1973), 'Science Technology and Production in the Underdeveloped Countries: An Introduction', in Cooper, C. (ed.), Science, Technology and Development: The Political Economy of Technical Advance in Underdeveloped Countries, Frank Cass, London.

Cooper, C.M. (1981), 'Policy Intervention for Technological Innovations in Developing Countries', World Bank Staff Working Paper, No. 441, The World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Dore, R. (1983), A Case Study of Technology Forecasting in Japan. The Next Generation Base Technologies Development Programme, Technical Change Centre, London.

Dore, R.P. (1985), 'Why Japanese Firms can take a Long-term View', Financial Journal of Sociology, Vol. XXXIV, No. 4, pp. 459482.

Dore, R.P. (forthcoming), 'Flexible Rigidities', Structural Adjustments in the Japanese Economy, Athlone Press, London.

Doyle, J. (1985), 'Biotechnology's Harvest of Herbicides', Genewatch, Vol. 2. European Federation of Biotechnology Newsletter (various), Frankfurt, Germany. Fairtlough, G. (1980), 'How Systems Thinking Might Evolve', Journal of Systems Analysis, Vol. 7, pp. 13-21.

Fairtlough, G.H. (1982), 'Innovation and Biotechnology', Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, August, pp. 565-576.

Fairtlough, G.H. (1984), 'Can We Plan for New Technology?', Long Range Planning, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 14-23.

Faulkner, W.R. (1986), 'Linkages Between Industrial and Academic Research: The Case of Biotechnology Research in the Pharmaceutical Industry', Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Sussex.

Fransman, M. (1985), 'Conceptualizing Technical Change in the Third World in the 1980s: An Interpretative Survey', Journal of Development Studies.

Fransman, M. and King, K. (1984), Technological Capability in the Third World, Macmillan, London.

Gilbert, R. (1982), Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology in Japan, James Capel and Co., London.

Japanscan: Bio-industry Bulletin (1983 - ), Mitaka, Leamington Spa.

Jasanoff, S. (1985), 'Technological Innovation in a Corporatist State: The Case of Biotechnology in the Federal Republic of Germany', Research Policy, Vol. 14, pp. 2338.

Krimsky, S. (1982), Genetic Alchemy. The Social History of the Recombinant DNA Controversy, MIT Press, Boston.

Lesser, W., Magrath, W. and Kalter, R. (1985), 'Projecting Adoption Rates: Application of an Ex Ante Procedure to Biotechnology Projects', Cornell Agricultural Economics Staff Paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Magrath, W.B. (1985), 'Factors Affecting the Location of the US Biotechnology Industry', Cornell Agricultural Economics Staff Paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Magrath, W.B. (1986), 'Patent and Technology Transfer Issues in Biotechnology', Cornell Agricultural Economics Staff Paper, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Okimoto, D.I., Sugano, T. and Weinstein, F.B. (1984), Competitive Edge: The Semiconductor Industry in the US and Japan, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Randall, P. (1986), 'Recombinant Virus may be useful in Studying the AIDS virus and as Potential Vaccine', News and Features from NIH, Vol. 86, No. 4.

Roobeek, A.J.M. (1986), 'The Crisis in Fordism and the Rise of a New Technological System', Department of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Rothman, H., Stanley, R., Thompson, S. and Towalski, Z. (1981), Biotechnology: A Review and Annotated Bibliography, Frances Pinter, London.

Ruivenkamp, G. (1984), 'Biotechnology. The Production of New Relations Within the Agro-industrial Chain of Production', Unpublished Manuscript.

Sasson, A. (1984), Biotechnologies, Challenges and Promises, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris.

Schneiderman, H.A. (1985), Genetic Engineering in Agriculture-Will it Pay?, Monsanto Co., St. Louis.

Schonberger, R.J. (1982), Japanese Manufacturing Techniques. Nine Hidden Lessons in Simplicity, The Free Press, New York.

Stankiewicz, R. (1981), 'The Single Cell Protein as a Technological Field', Report by the Research Policy Institute, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.

Straus, J. (1985), Industrial Property Protection of Biotechnical Inventions: Analysis of Certain Basic Issues, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, July.

Ubell, R.N. (1982), 'Cuba's Great Leap', Nature, Vol. 302, pp. 745-748.

Ubell, R.N. (1983), 'High-tech Medicine in the Caribbean', The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 309, pp. 1468-1472.

UNIDO (1984), 'Draft Work Programme for the First Five Years of Operation of the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology', Report No. ICGEB/PREP COMM/5/2, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

UNIDO Secretariat (1984), 'Biotechnology and the Developing Countries: Applications for the Pharmaceutical Industry and Agriculture', United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

U.S. Government, Interagency Working Group on Competitive and Transfer Aspects of Biotechnology (1983), Biobusiness World Data Base, McGraw- Hill, Washington, D.C.

Utterback, J.M. and Abernathy, W.J. (1975), 'A Dynamic Model of Process and Product Innovation', Omega, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 639-656.

Warhurst, A. (1984), 'The Applications of Biotechnology in Developing Countries. The Case of Bacterial Leaching with Particular Reference to the Andean Pact Copper Project', United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna.

Watanabe, S. (1985), 'Employment and Income Implications of the "Biorevolution": A Speculative Note', International Labour Review, Vol. 124, No. 3, pp. 281 -297.

Watson, J.D. (1983), A Short Course in Recombinant DNA, Freeman, New York.

Williamson, O.K. (1979), 'Transaction Cost Economics: The Governance of Contractual Relations', Journal of Law and Economics, October, pp. 233-261.

Williamson, O.K. (1980), 'The Organization of Work. A Comparative Institutional Assessment', Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, pp. 5-38.

Zimmerman, B.K. (1984), Biofuture- Confronting the Genetic Era, Plenum Press, New York.

Zimmerman, B.K. (1984), Trends in World Biotechnology, a review and analysis of advances in technology and industrial development.

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