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Notes

1. Reference can further be made to domestic legislation on the matter in virtually all states: It is estimated that domestic legislative instruments reach today a total of 30,000. A.C. Kiss, Droit international de l'environnement, 46 (Pedone, 1989).

2. Ct. A.A. Cançado Trindade, "Co-existence and Co-ordination of Mechanisms of International Protection of Human Rights (At Global and Regional Levels)," 202 Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit international, 21-435 (1987).

3. Th. C. Van Boven, "United Nations Policies and Strategies: Global Perspectives?", Human Rights: Thirty Years after the Universal Declaration, 88-89 (B.G. Ramcharan. ea., Martinus Nijhoff, 1979); see id. at 89-91.

4. A.C. Kiss, supra note 1 at 275-276, 46; see id at 93, 106, 204.

5. Id. at 38-39.

6. "Formal and informal linkages," across nations and states have contributed to this new perception; R.W. Hahn and K.R. Richards, "The Internationalization of Environmental Regulations,'' 30 Harvard International Law Journal, 421, 423, 444-445 (1989).

7. A.C. Kiss, supra note 1 at 212.

8. V. P. Nanda, "Global Warming and International Environmental Law - A Preliminary Inquiry," 30 Harvard International Law Journal, 380-35 (1989).

9. See UNEP Governing Council decision 15/36, of 25 May 1989.

10. WMO/UNEP, IPCC Working Group 111 (Response Strategies) - Legal Measures; Report of Topic Co-ordinarors. 111(1989) (mimeographed, internal circulation).

11. See Statement of the International Meeting of Legal and Policy Experts, 2 (1989).

12. See Ministerial Conference on Pollution and Climatic Change. The Noordwijk Declaration on Climate Change, 4 (Nov. 1989) (mimeographed, restricted circulation); see, id. at 113.

13. A.C. Kiss, supra note I at 93, 67-68. 70-72, 8; L.A. Teclaff, "The Impact of Environmental Concern on the Development of International Law," International Environmental Law, 251 (L.A. Teclaff and A.E. Utton, eds., Praeger, 1974); see Ian Brownlie. "A Survey of International Customary Rules of Environmental Protection," in id. at 5.

14. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, 261-289 (Oxford University, 1987).

15. P.M. Dupuy, "Bilan de recherches de la section de langue française du Centre d'Etude et de Recherche de l'Académie," La pollution transfrontière et le droit international -1985, 65-66, 68-70, 81 (Sijthoff/Académie de droll international, 1986).

16. See C.W. Jenks, The Common Law of Mankind, 1-442 (Stevens, 1958); R.J. Dupuy, La communauté internationale entre le mythe et l'histoire, 11-182 (Economica/Unesco, 1986).

17. NJ. Schrijver, "Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources versus the Common Heritage of Mankind: Complementary or Contradictory Principles of International Economic Law?", International Law and Development, 95-96. 98, 101 (P. De Waart, P. Peters, and E. Denters, eds., Nijhoff/Kluwer, 1988).

18. See supra note 16.

19. On this last point, see UNEP/Executive Director and Secretariat, Note to the Group of Legal Experts to Examine the Implications of the "Common Concern of Mankind" Concept on Global Environmental Issues, Malta Meeting, 13-15 Dec. 1990, document UNEP/ ELIU/WG. 1/112, pp. 1-2, 4 (mimeographed, internal circulation); see id. at 4-5, 8-9.

20. Id. at 14 22.

21. A.A. Cançado Trindade, "The Domestic Jurisdiction of States in the Practice of the United Nations and Regional Organizations," 25 International and Comparative Law Quarterly 723, 731, 737, 742, 761-762, 765 (1976).

22. See A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 286-290.

23. See Article 20 (on "Common Heritage of Mankind") and Article 30 (which refers to "Present and Future Generations" and to "The Potential of Present and Future Development of Developing Countries"); id. at 290 n. 932.

24. See id. at 288-289.

25. A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 286-287.

26. See id. at 286-288 (in particular the reports of the International Law Commission cited therein). It is not surprising that one has focused on a guarantee of reparation for possible injuries resulting from ecologically dangerous (even though not prohibited) activities; J. Juste Ruíz "Derecho Internacional Público y Medio Ambiente," VlII Jornadas de la Asociación Española de Profesores de Derecho Internacional y Relaciones Intenacionales, 38, 40-41 (Barcelona, 1984). For general studies, see P.M. Dupuy. La responsabilité internationale des Etats pour les dommages d'origine technologique et industrielle, 7-290 (Pedone, 1976); K. Zemanek," La responsabilité des Etats pour faits internationalement illicites, ainsi que pour fan's internationalement licites." Responsabilite internationale. I-X8 (P. Weil, ea., Pedone, 1987).

27. Ministerial Declaration of the 11 World Climate Conference, 3, 7 (Geneva, 7 Nov. 1990) (mimeographed, internal circulation).

28. See E. Brown Weiss, In Fairness to Future Generations: International Law, Common Patrimony, and Intergenerational Equity, 1-291 (Transnational/United Nations University, 1989).

29. Namely, to conserve resources, to ensure equitable use, to avoid adverse impacts. to prevent disasters and minimize damage and provide emergency assistance. to compensate for environmental harm. See id.

30. A.C. Kiss, "La notion de patrimoine commun de l'humanité," 175 Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit international, 229, 231, 240 (1982); see id. at 241, 130.

31. Id. at 113; see id. at 240.

32. Id. at 243.

33. See A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 284-285.

34. See U.N. doe. ST/HR/1/Rev. 3, 52-142 (1982).

35. UN doe. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/6, 5 (2 July 1985) (report prepared by Mr. B. Whitaker). 36. Id. at 16, 6.

37. Id. at 17, 7. The study stressed "the element of intent to destroy a designated group wholly or partially," which raised "crimes of mass murder and against humanity to qualify as the special crime of genocide." id. at 19.

38. Id. at 29; see id. at 41-44.

39. H. Gros Espiell, "Las Convenciones sobre Tortura de las Naciones Unidas y de la Organización de los Estados Americanos," XIV Curso de Derecho Internacional organizado por el Comité Jurídico Interamericano, 233, 240 (Secretaría General de la OEA, 1988).

40. On its preventive character, see Council of Europe, Explanatory Report of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 10-11, 21 (C.E./Directorate of Human Rights, 1989).

41. A. Cassese, "A New Approach to Human Rights: The European Convention for the Prevention of Torture," 83 A.J.I.L. 151 (19X9).

42. Id. at 152

43. A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 98-100.

44. Cit. in A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 285, 253.

45. Cit. in id. at 284.

46. See id. at 263-270, 280.

47. Id. at 271-273.

48. Id. at 272-274.

49. Cit. in id. at 274.

50. Cit. in id. at 274-276.

51. Id. at 276.

52. In id. at 276-277.

53. Cit. in A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 277. In the Campbell and Cosans versus United Kingdom (19X2) case, even though the Court found that no violation of Article 3 of the Convention was established in the case, in the proceedings before the Court (and previously before the Commission) the issue was raised by the applicants that the 'imminent risk" of punishment of their children at school entitled them to claim that their children were [potential] victims" under Article 25 of the Convention; see id. at 277-27X n. 88X.

54. This particular point was the object of attention as early as in 1970, in the III International Colloquy on the European Convention on Human Rights, organized by the Council of Europe and held in Brussels; see Privacy and Human Rights, 129-181 (A.H. Robertson, ea., Manchester University, 1973).

55. See A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2.

56. Cit. in id. at 278.

57. Cit. in id. at 278.

58. Id. at 278.

59. European Commission of Human Rights, J. Soering versus United Kingdom (application no. 14038/88) - Report of the Commission, 15-18, 91, 96, 106 (Council of Europe. January 1989). the risk"

60. Id. at 18-19, 21, 26, 106-108, 110 120, 149.

61. Id. at 29-30, 163.

62. See id. at 30-31, 165-170.

63. European Court of Human Rights, Soering case (no. 111989/1611217), Judgment of 7 July 1989, Strasbourg, Council of Europe. 1989, p. 27, 90.

64. Id. at 27. 34-35, 37-38; 91-92, 110-111, 122. 117.

65. Id. at 40, 128; the Court further held that there had been no violation of Article 13 of the Convention.

66. See A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note I at 279, 281-283, 298-299. For other aspects of the incidence of the temporal factor in the jurisprudence under the European Convention (e.g., case-law pertaining to a "continuing situation." subsequent events not affecting the applicant's claim of being a victim under the Convention, subsequent adequate redress affecting the applicant's original claim of being a victim under the Convention), see id. at 291-296; on yet other aspects (e.g., adequate redress affecting subsequent complaints of the same human rights violation under distinct instruments), see id. at 296-298

67. In the third of the Honduran cases - the Fairen Garbi and Solís Corrales case - it may be recalled, the Court, unlike in the two other Honduran cases, found that it had not been proven that Honduras was responsible for the disappearances of the persons concerned. It repeated, though, its view that the phenomenon of involuntary disappearances amounted to a "multiple and continuing violation" of rights guaranteed under the Convention. See Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR), Fairen Garbi and Solis Corrales case, Series C, no. 6, Judgment of 15 Mar. 1989, p. 128, 147.

68. Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR), Velasquez Rodriguez case, Series C, no. 4, Judgment of 29 July 198X, p. 147, 155; Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR), Godinez Cruz case, Series C, no. 5, Judgment of 20 Jan. 19X9. p. 145, {i 163.

69. IACHR, Velasquez Rodriguez case, supra note 68 at 152, 166; IACHR, Godinez Cruz case, supra note 68 at 150, 175.

70. IACHR, Velasquez Rodriguez case, supra note 68 at 154-156, 15X, 160, 172, 174-175, 177, 182, 187-188; IACHR, Godinez Cruz case, supra note 6X at 152-154, 157-158, 1X2, 184-186, 188, 197-198.

71. IACHR, Velasquez Rodriguez case, cit. supra n. (68), p. 155, 175; IACHR, Godinez Cruz case, cit. supra n. (6X), p. 153, 1X5.

72. IACHR, Velasquez Rodriguez case, cit. supra n. (68), p. 156, 177; IACHR, Godinez
Cruz case, cit. supra n. (68), p. 154 188.

73. G. Cohen-Jonathan, La Convention européenne des droits de l'homme. 557-559 (Univ. d'Aix-Marseille/Economica, 1989).

74 E. Brown Weiss, supra note 28 at 1 14-115; see id. at 1 17, 28-32.

75. F. Przetacznik, "The Right to Life as a Basic Human Right." 9 Revue des droits de l'homme/Human Rights Journal, 589, 603 (1976).

76. IACHR, Advisory Opinion OC-3/83, of 8 Sept. 1983, Series A, no. 3, p. 59. 53.

77. Cit. in J.G.C. Van Aggelen, Le rôle des organizations internationales dans la protection du droit a la vie, 23 (Story-Scientia, 1986).

78. Cit. in id. at 38.

79. OAS, Annual Report of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights - 1986-1987. 170, 172-173.

80. Th. Desch, "The Concept and Dimension of the Right to Life (As Defined in International Standards and in International and Comparative Jurisprudence)," 36 Österreichische Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht and Völkerrecht, 86, 99 (1985).

81. Cit. in J.G.C. Van Aggelen, supra note 77 at 32.

82. F. Przetacznik supra note 75 at 603: see id. at 586.

83. On the right to life bearing witness of the indivisibility of all human rights, see W.P. Gormley, "The Right to a Safe and Decent Environment," 20 Indian Journal of International Law, 23-24 (1 98X 1.

84. Cit. in Th. Desch, supra note 80 at 101.

85. Id. at 101.

86. See H. Kanger, Human Rights in the U.N. Declaration, 81-82 (Almqvist & Wiksell, 1984).

87. On the legislative history of Article 6 of the UN Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, see B.G. Ramcharan, "The Drafting History of Article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights," in The Right to Life in International Law 42-56 (B.G. Ramcharan, ea., Nijhoff/Kluwer, 1985). On the legislative history of Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights, see B.G. Ramcharan. "The Drafting History of Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights." in id. at 57-61. On the legislative history of Article 4 (and antecedents) of the American Convention on Human Rights, see 1. Colón-Collazo, "A Legislative History of the Right to Life in the Inter-American Legal System," in id. at 33-41.

88. See to this effect the analysis by Y. Dinstein, "The Right to Life, Physical Integrity. and Liberty," The International Bill of Rights, 114- 137 (L. Henkin, ea., Columbia University. 1981).

89. Th. Van Boven, People Matter - Views on International Human Rights Policy, 77 (Meulenhoff. 1982).

90. On this matter, see S. Leckie, "The U.N. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Right to Adequate Housing: Towards an Appropriate Approach," 11 Human Rights Quarterly, 522-560 (1989).

91. Cit. in B.G. Ramcharan, "The Right to Life," 30 Netherlands International Law Review, 301 (1983).

92. Id. at 316.

93. See id. at 305, 306; Th. Van Boven, supra note 89 at 179, 181-183.

94. B.G. Ramcharan, supra note 91 at 303, 308-310.

95. Id. at 302.

96. Id. at 304, 329. Views reproduced in B.G. Ramcharan, "The Concept and Dimensions of the Right to Life," in The Right to Life in International Law, supra note 87 at 1-32.

97. P. Kromarek, "Le droit à un environnement équilibré et sain, considéré comme un droit de l'homme: sa mise-en-oeuvre rationale, européenne et internationale." I Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, 2-3, 31 (Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1979) (mimeographed, restricted circulation).

98. Id. at 13, 5 (emphasis added).

99. Id. at 12.

100. Id. at 43, 21.

101. J.T.B. Tripp, `'The UNEP Montreal Protocol: Industrialized and Developing Countries Sharing the Responsibility for Protecting the Stratospheric Ozone Layer," 20 New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, 734 (1988); Ch. B. Davidson, 'The Montreal Protocol: The First Step toward Protecting the Global Ozone Layer." in id. at 807-809.

102. See Preamble and Articles 10(2) and 11; text in 62 Annuaire de l'Institut de droit international, 11, 204. 207-208, 211 (1987).

103. R. Faik, Human Rights and State Sovereignty, 158 (Holmes & Meier, 19X1). 104. Id. at 167; see id. at 159.

105. Id. at 167. The author, comparing "ecocidal behaviour" to gross and massive violations of human rights, stresses the need to safeguard "ecological well-being,' cells for "coercive measures to prevent additional nuclear weapons tests" and for "a new Covenant on Environmental and Ecological Rights"; id. at 177, 183. In 1973 proposals were advanced by Falk for the adoption of a Draft Convention on the Crime of Ecocide, but states did not seem then willing to adopt it; cit. in W.P. Gormley, Human Rights and Environment: The Need for International Cooperation, 14-15, 29 (Sijthoff, 1976).

106. See Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Diez Años de Actividades -19711981, 338-339 (Secretaría General de la OEA, 1982).

107. Id. at 321.

108. See id. at 329-330).

109. B.G. Ramcharan, supra note 91 at 303.

110. Report of the Human Rights Committee, U.N. G.A.O.R. 40th Sess., Supp. No. 40 at 162
(A/40/40).

111. Id. at 162.

112. See Final Act of the International Conference on Human Rights, 4, 6, 9, 14, 36, U.N. Doc.
A/CONF.32/41 (1968).

113. See J.M. Becet and D. Colard, Les droits de l'homme, 128-131 (Economica, 1982).

114. To this effect, see id. at 129-131; Ph. Alston, "Peace, Disarmament and Human Rights," Armement, Développement, Droits de l'homme, Désarmement, 324-325, 329-330 (G. Fischer, ea., Colloque 3 I'Unesco, 1982).

115. Ph. Alston, id. at 325-330.

116. See discussion in A.A. Tikhonov, "The Inter-relationship between the Right to Life and the Right to Peace; Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass-Destruction and the Right to Life," in The Right to Life in International Law, supra note 87 at 97- 113.

117. See World Commission on Environment and Development, supra note 14 at 19, 290-307; see id. at 294-300 on conflicts as a "cause of unsustainable development."

118. Text reproduced in 19/6 Envt'l Pol'y & L. 230, 233 (1989); see Supporting memorandum by C. Vargas Pizarro, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores y Culto, 1st Draft 1-24 (Costa Rica, 1989) (internal circulation only).

119. P.J.I.M. De Waart, "The Inter-Relationship between the Right to Life and the Right to Development," in The Right to Life in International Law, supra note 87 at 89, 91-92.

120. Cit. in id. at 91.

121. As proclaimed by the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25(1). On the "negative" and "positive" aspects of the right to health, see M. Bothe, "Les concepts fondamentaux du droit a la santé le point de vue juridique," Le droit à la santé en tant que droit de l'homme - Colloque 1978, 14-29 (Academic de droit international de la Haye, Sijthoff, 1979); Scalabrino-Spadea, "Le droit a la santé - Inventaire de normes et principes de droit international, in Le medecin face aux droits de l'homme, 97-98 (Pedova, Cedam, 1990).

122. R. Roemer, "El Derecho a la Atención de la Salud," in OMS, El Derecho a la Salud en ids Americas 16 (H. L. Fuenzalida-Puelma and S.S. Connor, eds., OPAS, publ. no 509).

123. P.M. Dupuy, "Le droit a la santé et la protection de l'environnement," in Le droit a la santé, supra note 121 at 406; see id. at 351.

124. Id. at 412; see id. at 409.

125. P.M. Dupoy, supra note 123 at 410.

126. A. Kiss, "Le droit à la qualité de l'environnement: un droit de l'homme?", in Le droit à la qualité de l'environnement: un droit en devenir, un droit à définir, 69-70 (N. Dupic, ea., Quebec/Amérique, 1988).

127. Id. at 71.

128. See Council of Europe/European Social Charter, Committee of Independent Experts, Conclusions IX-2, 71 (C.E., 1986) (Austrian and Cypriot reports); Id., Conclusions Xl-1, 110 (Swedish and British reports).

129. See, e.g., German and Italian reports in id., Conclusions IX-2. 71-72.

130. In id. at 71-72.

131. In id., Conclusions Xl-1, 118.

132. Council of Europe/European Social Charter, Case Law on the European Social Charter Supplement, 37 (1982).

133. Council of Europe/European Social Charter, Case Law on the European Social Charter, 105 (1982).

134. Id. at 104. On the protection of health vis-à-vis the environment under Article 11 of the European Social Charter. see Council of Europe doe. 6030, of 22.(13.1989, p. 9; C.E., Comité Gouvernemental de la Charte Sociale Européenne - 10e rapport, 28 (1989) (control of atmospheric pollution), Conseil de l'Europe/Charte Sociale Européenne, Comité d'Experts Indépendants - Conclusions X-2, 111-112 (1988) (reduction of atmospheric pollution); Council of Europe/European Social Charter, Committee of Independent Experts - Conclusions X-l, 108 (1987) (reduction of atmospheric pollution, air and water pollution control).

135 Cit in J P Jacque. "La protection du droit à l'environnement au niveau européen ou régional," Environnemenl et droits de l'homme, 74-75 (P Kromarek, ed, Unesco, 1987); see id. at 72-73. And, on Steiger's proposed Draft Protocol, see W.P. Gormley, Human Rights and Environment: The Need for International Co-operation, 90-95 (Sijthoff, 1976); P.M Dupuy, supra note 123 at 408-413.

136. W P. Gormley, supra note 135 at 112-113; J.P Jacque, supra note 135 at 73, 75-76; P M Dupuy, supra note 123 at 412-413. For the complete text of Steiger's 1973 proposed Draft Protocol, see Working Group for Environmental Law, "The Right to a Humane Environment/Das Recht auf eine menschenwürdige Umwelt," in Beiträge zur Umweltgestaltung (Heft A 13), 27-54 (Erich Schmidt, 1973) (Rapporteur, H. Steiger).

137. A. Berenstein, "Les droits économiques et sociaux garantis par la Charte Sociale Européenne," Perspectives canadiennes et européennes des droits de la personne, 114 (D. Turp and G.A. Beaudoin, eds, 1986); see id. at 433.

138. JJ. Lador-Lederer, International Group Protection, 13, 15-17, 23-24, 30 (Sijthod, 1968). 139. Id. at 27, 29, 22-23.

140. Id. at 19; see id. at 25.

141. D. Lack, "Human Rights and the Disadvantaged." 10 Human Rights Law Journal, 56-59 (1989).

142. See D. Sanders, "The U.N. Working Group on Indigenous Populations." 11 Human Rights Quarterly, 406-433 (1989).

143. See id. at 421-422, 428.

144. Text in id., Appendix, at 431

145. The Draft Declaration adds another element (17) to the benefit of indigenous populations, namely: "The duty of States to seek and obtain their consent, through appropriate mechanisms, before undertaking or permitting any programmes for the exploration or exploitation of mineral and other subsoil resources pertaining to their traditional territories. Just and fair compensation should be provided for any such activities undertaken." Text in id. at 432-433.

146. World Commission on Environment and Development, supra note 14 at 114

147. Id. at 114-116.

148. E. Brown Weiss, "Global Warming: Legal Implications for the Arctic," 2 Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 95-96 (1989).

149. Id. at 96.

150. See A.A. Cançado Trindade, "La question de la protection internationals des droits économiques, sociaux et culturels: évolution et tendances actuelles," 94 Revue générale de droit international public (1990) no. 3 (in print).

151. See OAS, doe. OEA/Ser. G-CP/CAJP-694/87, of 21 Oct. 1987, p. 14, and see p. 13. On the comments on the draft Article on the right to health by the Pan-American Health Organization, see OAS, doe. OEA/Ser. G-CP/CAIP-622/86 Add. 5. of 15 July 1986. pp. 83-85.

152. U.O. Umozurike, "The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights," 77 A.J.I.L. 906 (1983); see E.G. Bello, "The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights - A Legal Analysis," 194 Recueil des cours de l'Académie de droit international, 147-148 (1985).

153. See U.N. doe. E/CN. 411990/L. 63/Rev. 1, of 5 Mar. 1990, p. 2

154. Id. at 2.

155. A. Kiss, "Définition et nature juridique d'un droit de l'homme à l'environnement," Environnement et droits de l'homme, 25-26 (P. Kromarek, ea., Unesco, 1987); J.P. Jacque, "La protection du droit àl'environnement au niveau européen ou régional", in id. at 74.

156. A. Kiss, supra note 155 at 26.

157. A. Cassese, A. Clapham, and J. Weiler, 1992 - Whal Are Our Rights? - An Agenda for a Human Rights Action Plan, 25 (European University Institute, 1989).

158. Text in United Nations, Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment 3 (UN, 1973).

159. Text in id. at 4.

160. Text in The World Charter for Nature, 136, 140 (2nd rev. ea., E. Schmidt, 1986).

161. Text in id. at 186

162. World Comission on Environment and Development, supra note 14 at 43.

163. Text in id. at 348; see id. at 330-333.

164. Id. at 330.

165. Id. at 330.

166. See Report of the WCED Experts Croup on Environmental Law 11 (Document WCED/86/
23/Add. 1, September 1986).

167. L.A. Teclaff, "The Impact of Environmental Concern on the Development of International Law," International Environmental Law, 260 (L.A. Teclaff and A.E. Utton, eds., Praeger, 1974); see id. at 259-262 for the argument of the reduction of the "anthropocentric system

168. A. Kiss, "Les Protocoles additionnels aux Conventions de Genève de 1977 et la protection de biens de l'environnement," Etudes et essais sur le droit international humanitaire et sur les principes de Ja Croix-Rouge en l'honneur de Jean Pictet, 184-186, 190 (Ch, Swinarski, ea., ClCR/Martinus Nijhoff. 1984).

169. Id. at 190-192.

170. A.A. Cançado Trindade, "A Evolução do Direito Internacional Humanitário e as Posiçôes do Brasil," 39-41 Boletim da Sociedade Brasileira de Direito Internacional, 76-107 (1987- 1989).

171. H. Meyrowitz, "Réflexions sur le fondement du droit de la guerre," Etudes et essais sur le droit international humanitaire et sur les principes de la Croix-Rouge en l'honneur de Jean Pictet, 430-431 (Ch. Swinarski, ea.. ClCR/Martinus Nijhoff. 19X4).

172. Jean de Preux, Comment, 'Protocol 1, Article 35 - Basic Rules,'` Commentary on the Additional Protocols of 8 June 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of/2 August/949, 41 1-418 (Y. Sandoz, Ch. Swinarski, and B. Zimmermann, eds.. ICRC/Martinus Nijhoff, 1987).

173. Claude Pilloud and Jean Pictet, Comment, "Protocol I, Article 55 - Protection of the Natural Environment." in Commentary on the Additional Protocols, supra note 172 at 662-664.

174. See Claude Pilloud and Jean Pictet, Comment, "Protocol 1, Article 56- Protection of Works and Installations Containing Dangerous Forces," in Commentary on the Additional Protocols, supra note 172 at 667-669; see id. at 669-675.

175. Jean de Preux, Comment, "Protocol 1, Article 36- New Weapons," Commentary on the Additional Protocols, supra note 172 at 427.

176. Thus, other Contracting Parties could "ask for information on this point"; id. at 424, 428; see id. at 421-428.

177. For comments, see Commentary on the Additional Protocols, supra note 172 at 1455-1464. 178. Cit. in A. Kiss, supra note 168 at 192. For the preparatory work of those provisions, see W.E. Burhenne and W.A. Irwin, The World Charter for Nature, 54-55. 79-82 (2nd rev. ea., E. Schmidt, 1986).

179. ACNUR/UNHCR, Declaración de Cartagena/Cartagena Declaration. 34 (ACNUR/Universidad de Cartagena, 1984).

180. Attended by a group of experts, as well as governmental delegates from Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela; see id. at 3-8.

181. Id. at 14, 34.

182. ACNUR/UNHCR, Grupo de Consulta sobre Posibles Soluciones a los Problemas de los Refugiados Centroamericanos - Informe, 2-3 (UNHCR, 1981).

183. Id. At 7-8.

184. The Conference was held in Guatemala City 29-31 May 1989. The document. prepared in January 1989, counted on comments submitted by the governments concerned. See UNHCR, document CIREFCA/89/9, 1989, p. I (English revised version),

185. Id. at 3.

186. Id. at 7-8.

187. To environmental disasters there thus apply, besides the general duty of preventing them, the general duty of minimizing damage and providing emergency assistance - comprising the obligations to notify promptly and to provide information, to develop contingency plans, and to cooperate in minimizing damage - and the general duty of compensating for injuries from them. See E. Brown Weiss, '`Environmental Disasters in International Law," Anuario Juridico Interamericano, 141-169 (1986); A. Kiss, "L'accident de Tchernobyl et ses consequences au point de vue du Droit international," 32 Annuaire français de droit international, 139-152 (1986).

188. See id. at 14.

189. See id. at 15.

190. See id. at 15.

191. L. Gordenker. Refugees in International Politics, 170, 179 (Croom Helm, 1987); see id. at
168-173, 176-180.

192. B.G. Ramcharan. Humanitarian Good Offices in International Law, 141-149 (Martinus Nijhoff, 1983).

193. B.G. Ramcharan, "Early-Warning at the United Nations: The First Experiment," 1 International Journal of Refugee Law, 382 (1989): see id. at 379-382.

194. For a criticism of the "preventive programmes" of the so-called "orderly departure system" and the "moratorium on departures" in the Vietnam case (1979-1984), see L. Gordenker, supra note 191 at 181-183.

195. Cit in B.G. Ramcharan, supra note 193 at 384. 196. L. Gordenker, supra note 191 at 174-175.

197. Id. at 174.

198. Id. at 174.

199. Cit. in B.G. Ramcharan, supra note 193 at 383.

200. See supra note 187. See the two 1986 IAEA Conventions on Nuclear Accidents (Early Notification and Assistance), 25 I.L.M. 1369-86 (1986).

201. A. Kiss, "La mise-en-oeuvre du droit a l'environnement: problématique et moyens," 11 Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, 4 (Institute for European Environmental Policy. 1980) (mimeographed, restricted circulation).

202. Id. at 5.

203. Ph. Alston, `'Conjuring up New Human Rights: A Proposal for Quality Control." 78 A.J.l.L. 614 (1984).

204. For example, "it would not seem inherently more difficult for a particular society to define a 'right to primary education' (an economic right) than a 'right to take part in the conduct of public affairs' (a political right)." Ph. Alston, "Making Space for New Human Rights: The Case of the Right to Development," Harvard Human Rights Yearbook, 35 (1988).

205. Id. at 33.

206. Id. at 38.

207. Id. at 35.

208. K. Vasak, "Pour les droits de l'homme de la troisième génération: les droits de solida rité," Résumés des cours de l'lnstitut International des droits de l'homme (X Session d'Enseignement, 1979), 6 (IIDH, 1979) (mimeographed).

209 For a recent study of the operation of international mechanisms of human rights protection, see A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 21-435

210. A. Eide, "Realization of Social and Economic Rights and the Minimum Threshold Approach," 10 Human Rights Law Journal, 36, 38 (1989).

211 Id. at 41.

212. A. Kiss, supra note 126 at 69-87 As the environment is a common good ("le bien de tous"), "I'ensemble du corps social aussi bien que les groupes ou que les individus qui le composent vent appelés à participer à sa gestion et à sa protection"; P. Kromarek, 'Le droit à un environnement équilibré et sain, considéré comme un droit de l'homme: sa mise-en-oeuvre rationale, européenne et internationale," I Conférence européenne sur I'environnement et les droits de l'homme 15 (Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1979) (mimeographed, restricted circulation). On the remedies (in domestic comparative law) for the exercise of the right to information and the right of participation, see L.P. Suetens, "La protection du droit à ['information et du droit de participation: les recours`" II Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, 1-13 (Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1980) (mimeographed, restricted circulation); and, on private recourses for environmental harm (in domestic comparative law), see Environmental Pollution and Individual Rights: An International Symposium, xvii-xxiii, 3-162 (S.C. McCaffrey and R.E. Lutz, eds., Deventer, Kluwer, 1978). On the "procedural" conception of the right to the conservation of the environment, see A. Kiss, "Peut-on parler d'un droit à l'environnement?", Le droit et l'environnerment - Actes des Journées de l'Environnement du C. N. R.S., 309-317 (1988).

213. A. Eide, supra note 210 at 36.

214. On their functioning and coordination, see A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 13435.

215. Conclusions of the Siena Forum on International Law of the Environment. 8. 23 (April 1990) (mimeographed, restricted circulation).

216. L.A. Teclaff, supra note 167 at 252.

217. See A.Z. Drzemczewski, European Human Rights Convention in Domestic Law - A Comparative Study, 199-228 (Oxford University Press, 1983); J. Rivero, "La protection des droits de l'homme dans les rapports entre personnel privées," René Cassin Amicorum Discipulorumque Lrber, 311 (vol. 111, Pedone, 1971).

218. Y. Dinstein, "The Right to Life, Physical Integrity' and Liberty,`' in The International Bill of Rights, 119 (L. Henkin, ea., Columbia University, 1981); Jan De Meyer, "The Right to Respect for Private and Family Life, Home and Communications in Relations between Individuals, and the Resulting Obligations for States Parties to the Convention," in A.H. Robertson (ed.), Privacy and Human Rights, 263 (Manchester University, 1973).

219. E.A. Alkema, "The Third-Party Applicability of 'Drittwirkung' of the European Convention on Human Rights'" in Protecting Human Rights: The European Dimension - Studies in Honour of G.J. Wiarda, 35-37 (F. Matscher and H. Petzold, eds., C. Heymanns, 1988).

220. Id. at 33-34.

221. This has led one to speak of a sort of "indirect Drittwirkung," since "it is realized via an obligation of the State." P. van Dijk and G.J.H. van Hoof, Theory and Practice of the European Convention on Human Rights, 14-18 (Deventer, Kluwer, 1984).

222. Jan De Meyer, supra note 218 at 267-269.

223. Id. at 271; see id. at 272.

224. Id. at 273.

225. Id. at 274-275.

226. P. Kromarek, "Le droit a un environnement équilibré et sain, considéré comme un droit de l'homme: sa mise-en-oeuvre rationale, européenne et internationale,"in I Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, 38 (Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1979) (mimeographed, restricted circulation).

227. A. Kiss, supra note 126 at 80; see id. at 83. "En ce qui concerne le droit à l'environnement, tout le monde est 'créancier 'et 'débiteur' en même temps: Etat, collectivités, individus.`' A. Kiss, "La mise en oeuvre du droit à l`environnement: problématique et moyens," in 11 Conférence européenne sur "Environnement et droits de l'homme," 8 (Institut pour une Politique Européenne de l'Environnement, 1980) (mimeographed. restricted circulation); see id. at 6-9.

228. A.A. Cançado Trindade, supra note 2 at 401, 101; see id. at 104. 229. Id. at 110,121-122, 125.

230. World Commission on Environment and Development, supra note 14 at 332-333.

231. See F. Dore, "Conséquences des exigences d'un environnement équilibré et sain sur la définition, la portée et les limitations des differents droits de l'homme - Rapport introductif," I Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, 3-5, 7-12, 14 (Institute for European Environmental Policy, 1979) (mimeographed, restricted circulation); see F. Dore, in id. at 25-27, 37-38 (mimeographed, restricted circulation).

232. See F. Dore, "Conséquences des exigences," in I Conférence européenne sur l'environnement et les droits de l'homme, supra note 231 at 16-19; F. Dore, supra note 231 at 27.


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