Contents - Previous - Next
This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at http://unu.edu
AGTD (Allison Gas Turbine Division), General Motors Corporation (1994) Research and Development of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell System for Transportation Applications: Initial Conceptual Design Report. Prepared for the US Department of Energy, Office of Transportation Technologies, Report DOE/CH/10435-01, Contract No. DE-AC02-9OCH10435, February.
Anderson, D. and K. Ahmed (1995) The Case for Solar Energy Investments. World Bank Technical Paper No. 279, Energy Series. Washington D.C.: World Bank.
Blck, K., C. Hendriks, and W. Turkenburg (1989) The role of carbon dioxide removal in the reduction of the greenhouse effect. IEA/OECD Expert Seminar on Energy Technologies for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, Paris, 12-14 April.
Blok, K., R. H. Williams, R. E. Katofsky, and C. A. Hendriks (1997) Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration of recovered CO2 in depleted gas wells and enhanced natural gas recovery. Energy 22(2-3):161-168.
Burgt, M. van der, J. Cantle, and V. Boutkan (1992) Carbon dioxide disposal from coal-based IGCCs in depleted gas fields. In: K. Blok, W. Turkenburg, C. Hendriks, and M. Steinberg (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, pp. 603-610. Energy Conversion and Management 33 (5-8), Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Carlson, D. and S. Wagner (1993) Amorphous silicon photovoltaic systems. In T. B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A. K. N. Reddy, and R. H. Williams (eds.), Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity, pp. 403-435. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Carpentieri, A., E. Larson, and J. Woods (1993) Future biomass-based electricity supply in Northeast Brazil. Biomass and Bioenergy 4(3): 149-173.
Christodoulou, D. (1984) Technology and economics of the transmission of gaseous fuels via pipelines. M.Sc. in Engineering thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Princeton University, April.
Dunnison, D. (Ballard Power Systems) and J. Wilson (The Dow Chemical Company) (1994) PEM fuel cells: A commercial reality. In: A Collection of Technical Papers: Part 3, 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, pp. 1260-1263. Monterey, CA, 7-11 August.
EIA (Energy Information Administration) (1995) Annual Energy Outlook 1995, with Projections to 2010. DOE/EIA-0383(95). Washington D.C.: US Department of Energy.
Engelenburg, B. van and K. Blok (1993) Disposal of carbon dioxide in permeable underground layers: A feasible option? Climatic Change 23: 55-68.
Farla, J., C. Hendriks, and K. Blok (1992) Carbon dioxide recovery from industrial processes. Report prepared for the Integrated Research Programme on Carbon Dioxide Removal and Storage, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands, December.
Flavin, C. and N. Lenssen 1994. Power Surge: Guide to the Coming Energy Revolution. New York: Norton.
Graham, R., E. Lichtenberg, V. Roningen, H. Shapouri, and M. Walsh (1995) The economics of biomass production in the United States. In: Proceedings of the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas, Portland, OR, 21-24 August, pp. 1314-1323. NREL/CP-2008098, DE 95009230. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Hall, D., F. Rosille-Calle, R. Williams, and J. Woods (1993) Biomass for energy: Supply prospects. In: T. B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A. K. N. Reddy, and R. H. Williams (eds.), Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity, pp. 593-651. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Hendriks, C. (1994) Carbon dioxide removal from coal-fired power plants. Ph.D. thesis, Department of Science, Technology, and Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Holloway, S. (1996) An overview of the Joule II Project. Energy Conversion and Management 37(1-2): 1149-1154.
IEA (International Energy Agency) (1995) Energy Prices and Taxes: Second Quarter 1994. Paris: OECD.
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (1990) Climate
Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment, ed. J. T. Houghton,
G. J. Jenkins, and J. J. Ephraums. Cambridge: Cambridge
- 1992. Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment, ed. J. T. Houghton, B. A. Callander, and S. K. Varney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- (1994) Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: The 1994 Special Report of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of the IPCC, ed. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meiro Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B. A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris, and K. Maskell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- (1996) Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, ed. J. T. Houghton, L. G. Meiro Filho, B. A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
James, B., G. Baum, and I. Kuhn (1994) Technology development goals for automotive fuel cell power systems: Final Report to Argonne National Laboratory. US Department of Energy, ANL-94/44, August.
Johansson, T., H. Kelly, A. Reddy, and R. Williams (1993) Renewable fuels and electricity for a growing world economy: Defining and achieving the potential. In: T. B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A. K. N. Reddy, and R. H. Williams (eds.), Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity, pp. 1-71. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Katofsky, R. (1993) The Production of Fluid Fuels from Biomass. PU/CEES Report No. 273. Princeton, NJ: Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University.
Koide, H. et al. (1992) Subterranean containment and long-term storage of carbon dioxide in unused aquifers and in depleted natural gas reservoirs. In: K. Blok, W. Turkenburg, C. Hendriks, and M. Steinberg (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, pp. 619-626. Energy Conversion and Management 33(5-8), Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Larson, E., L. Rodriguez, and T. Rexende de Azevedo (1994) Farm forestry in Brazil. Paper prepared for Bio-Resources '94, Bangalore, India, October.
Larson, E., C. Marrison, and R. Williams (1995) CO2 mitigation potential of biomass energy plantations in developing regions. Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, draft MS.
Leeth, G. (1979) In: K. E. Cox and K. D. Williamson (eds.), Hydrogen: Its Technology and Implications; Volume 11: Transmission and Storage. Cleveland, OH: CRC Press.
Little, A. D. (1995) Fuel cells for building co-generation applications - Cost/performance requirements, and markets. Final Report prepared for the Building Equipment Division, Office of Building Technology, US Department of Energy, NTIS, Springfield, VA.
Manabe, S. and R. Stouffer (1993) Century-scale effects of
increased CO2 on the ocean atmosphere system. Nature
- (1994) Multi-century response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to an increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Climate 7(1): 5-23.
Mark, J., J. Ohi, and D. Hudson (1994) Fuel savings and emissions reductions from light duty fuel cell vehicles. In: A Collection of Technical Papers: Part 3, 29th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, pp. 1425-1429. Monterey, CA, 7-11 August.
Masters, C., E. Attanasi, D. Root (1994) World petroleum assessment and analysis. In: Proceedings of the 14th World Petroleum Congress, Stavanger, Norway. New York: Wiley.
Ogden, J. and J. Nitsch (1993) Solar hydrogen. In: T. B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A. K. N. Reddy, and R. H. Williams (eds.), Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity, pp. 9251009. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
Ogden, J. and R. Williams (1989) Solar Hydrogen: Moving Beyond Fossil Fuels. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute.
Ogden, J., E. Larson, and M. DeLuchi (1994) A Technical and Economic Assessment of Renewable Transportation Fuels and Technologies. Report to the Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress, Washington D.C., May.
Ogden, J., E. Dennis, M. Steinbugler, and J. Strohbehn (1995) Hydrogen Energy Systems Studies. Final Report from the Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory on US DOE Contract No. XR11265-2, 18 January.
Pottier, J., E. Blondin, and A. Garat (1988) Large-scale transmission and storage of hydrogen. In: T. N. Veziroglu and A. N. Protosenko (eds.), Hydrogen Energy Progress Vll, Proceedings of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference. Moscow, 25-29 September.
Skovholt, O. (1993) CO2 transportation systems. Energy Conversion and Management 34(911): 1095-1103.
Summeffield, I. R. and S. H. Goldhorpe (British Coal Corporation, Coal Research Establishment) and N. Williams and A. Sheikh (Bechtel Ltd.) (1993) Costs of CO2 disposal options. IEA Carbon Dioxide Disposal Symposium, Christchurch College, Oxford, England, 29-31 March.
Turkenburg, W. (1992) CO2 removal: Some conclusions. In: K. Blok, W. Turkenburg, C. Hendriks, and M. Steinberg (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, pp. 819-823. Energy Conversion and Management 33(5-8), Oxford: Pergamon Press.
WEC (World Energy Council) (1994) New Renewable Energy Resources: A Guide to the Future. London: Kogan Page.
Williams, R. (1993) Fuel cells, their fuels, and the US
automobile. Proceedings of the First Annual World Car 2001
Conference, University of California at Riverside, Riverside, CA,
- (1994a) Roles for biomass energy in sustainable development. In: R. H. Socolow et al. (eds.), Industrial Ecology and Global Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- (1994b) Fuel cell vehicles: The clean machine. Technology Review, April: 2130.
- (1995) Variants of a low CO2-emitting energy supply system (LESS) for the world. Prepared for Working Group II a (Energy Supply Mitigation Options) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, in support of Chapter 19 (Energy Supply Mitigation Options) of the IPCC's Second Assessment Report, Report No. PNL-10851, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington, 99352, USA.
Williams, R., E. Larson, R. Katofsky, and J. Chen (1995a)
Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation. Energy
for Sustainable Development 1(5): 18-34.
- (1995b) Methanol and hydrogen from biomass for transportation, with comparisons to methanol and hydrogen from natural gas and coal. PU/CEES Report No. 292, Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, July.
Wilson, T. (1992) The deep ocean disposal of carbon dioxide. In: K. Blok, W. Turkenburg, C. Hendriks, and M. Steinberg (eds.), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Carbon Dioxide Removal, pp. 627-633. Energy Conversion and Management 33(5-8), Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Zweibel, K. and A. Barnett (1993) Polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaics. In: T. B. Johansson, H. Kelly, A. K. N. Reddy, and R. H. Williams (eds.), Renewable Energy: Sources for Fuels and Electricity, pp. 437-481. Washington D.C.: Island Press.
The technological potential of PV
A PV market diffusion strategy
Possible PV adoption and diffusion scenarios
Concluding remarks: PV and eco-restructuring
Photovoltaic (PV) cells are semiconductor devices that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Apart from using the inexhaustible, zero-cost, solar primary energy source, PV systems show several advantages, even when compared with other renewable energy technologies. These include low environmental impact, simplicity, modularity, long lifetimes, and low maintenance requirements.
Despite these advantages and despite a rapidly evolving technology, PV systems have not found large-scale use up to now. Almost all PV penetration scenarios developed in the past have proven to be overoptimistic. Certainly, the major barrier to widespread adoption of PV systems is their continuing high cost. These costs have fallen significantly, but not as rapidly as was hoped.
Given these facts, the question might be raised to what extent PV can actually play a significant role in a future sustainable energy scenario. People participating in the debate on this question are roughly divided in two opinion groups. Some people think that PV is one of the most promising energy conversion technologies for the twenty-first century. Their optimism is based mainly on three factors: the inexhaustible primary energy resource, the wide range of applications, and, above all, the enormous potential for technological improvement. PV technology is still young. As technology improves and market demand grows, PV electricity prices should fall sharply, making PV fully competitive with other conventional and renewable energy sources. Other people think that PV technology will have only a minor role in the future world energy system. These people claim that PV acceptance is impeded not only by high costs but also by other major drawbacks, namely low efficiency, the large surface areas required, and intermittent power supply source.
The aim of the present paper is to discuss these two positions in some detail and to address two fundamental questions:
- Is PV compatible with the long-term targets of a sustainable energy system?
- What roles can PV play in the eco-restructuring transition?
In order to answer these questions, the paper will first analyse the technological potential of PV (the technology "state-of-the-art" and its rate of change). Second, it will go into the details of the main barrier to the widespread use of PV, its present high cost. Then, it will identify a possible PV market diffusion strategy. Finally, it will suggest possible scenarios for PV penetration in the twenty-first-century energy system.
The paper argues that PV is fully compatible with the long-term targets of a sustainable energy system (in environmental, economic, social, and geopolitical terms, as defined by Rogner in chap. 5 of this volume). PV is compatible with a decarbonized energy system based on the delivery of energy services, with electricity and hydrogen as energy vectors. Because it is extremely flexible in terms of technological options, range of applications, synergism's with other energy technologies, and the actors involved, PV is consistent with all sustainable energy patterns open to innovation and technological change. Therefore, PV will play a major role within the twenty-first-century energy system.
Contents - Previous - Next