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The long road to recovery: Community responses to industrial disaster


Table of contents


Edited by
James K. Mitchell

United Nations University Press

TOKYO - NEW YORK - PARIS

The United Nations University, 1996

The United Nations University is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world, and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo.

The United Nations University Press, the publishing division of the UNU, publishes scholarly books and periodicals in the social sciences, humanities, and pure and applied natural sciences related to the University's research.


Contents


Note to the reader from the UNU

Introduction

1 Improving community responses to industrial disasters

Introduction
The nature of industrial disaster
Industrial disaster burdens
The evolution of responses
Routine disasters
Surprises
Coping with surprise
Reducing the impact of industrial disaster surprises: The range of choice
Recovering from surprise
Conclusions
Notes
References

2 Responses to Minamata disease

Introduction

Who are the victims of Minamata disease?

Official recognition of Minamata disease and the initial response

Chisso's grip on the local community

The making of Minamata
Environmental destruction before Minamata disease

Neglect in preventing the spread of disease

Manoeuvres to avoid a ban on fishing
Obstacles to identifying the cause of Minamata disease
Efforts to halt the dumping of contaminated wastes

Problems associated with relief and reparations

Relief
Reparations
Measures to aid the fisheries

How the local community suppressed the victims

Conclusions

Editor's postscript

Chronology

Notes

References

3 Environmental contamination, community transformation, and the Centralia mine fire

Introduction
Centralia: A dependent town
The Centralia mine fire
A stage model of industrial contamination
Conclusions
Implications
Recommendations
References

4 Seveso: A paradoxical classic disaster

Introduction

Overview

The chemical release
Dioxin
The Seveso Directive

The European Community's institutional response to Seveso

The Directive and its annexes
Other institutional effects of the Seveso Directive

The lessons of Seveso

A model for managing uncertainty
Modelling the Seveso disaster
Modelling the Seveso Directive
Modelling the Karin B incident
A moral paradox
A scientific paradox
Industrial accidents, industrial society, and recovery

Conclusion: "Seveso" - A paradoxical symbol

Acknowledgements

Chronology

Notes

References

5 Long-term recovery from the Bhopal crisis

Introduction

The Bhopal toxic gas leak crisis

Antecedents and failures

Inside the plant
Outside the plant

A multiple-perspectives understanding of crises

Recovery of the victims and their community

Medical recovery
Economic recovery
Struggle for compensation
Victims remain victims

Recovery of Union Carbide

Financial restructuring
Legal battles and the "sabotage" defence

Recovery of the government

Political management of the crisis
Learning by government institutions

Implications for long-term disaster recovery

Crisis morphology
The permanence of victims
Revising stage models of disasters
Policy implications

Note

References

6 Iranian recovery from industrial devastation during war with Iraq

Introduction

Military and strategic context

Impacts of the war on human health and long-term habitability of the region

Human losses
Environmental damage
Damage to human settlements and the economy

Recovery from war

National reconstruction plans
Support from international organizations and local communities
Urban reconstruction
Housing reconstruction
Industrial reconstruction

Conceptual framework for a model of post-war reconstruction and industrial hazard recovery

A reconstruction strategy
The reconstruction process

Improving recovery and policy implications

Notes

References

7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine

Introduction

The accident and its immediate aftermath

The accident is "under control"
Focus on the West
International cooperation

The affected community

Regeneration and recovery

Victim action groups
International aid

Towards a model for nuclear and industrial accidents

Stages of crisis management
Three Mile Island, 1979
The international nuclear energy industry's response to Chernobyl

Summary

Suggestions for a general model of recovery from industrial accidents

Acknowledgement

Chronology

Notes

References

Media sources

8 The Exxon Valdez oil spill, Alaska

Introduction

The oil industry and the spill

The accident

Historical and cultural contexts

The Katmai eruption
The great Alaskan earthquake

The oil spill: Community impact

Psychological, social, and cultural impacts
The villages
Town responses

Recovery

Litigation initiatives
The communities
Organizational responses
New risks
Other kinds of recovery activities

But, what is recovery?

Conclusions

Chronology of the first 10 days

Notes

References

9 Signposts on the road to recovery

Surprising events and disquieting outcomes

Responding effectively to industrial disaster surprises

Awareness
Information
Action

Recommendations

References

Contributors