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1. The beginning of more systematic and organized UN work on the question is usually dated to 1968, or, more precisely, to the International Conference on Human Rights, held in Tehran that year, as well as to General Assembly Res 1450 (XXIII) of the same year. See, for more details, Yo Kubota, chap. 6.

2. V.W. Rasmussen, "The Peril of Ecologic al Illiteracy: Thoughts for the Graduating Class," Yale Review, vol. 75, no. 4 (1986): 594.

3. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment part 1, para 1 .

4. W.J.M. Mackenzie, Biological Ideas in Politics (Penguin Books, London, 1978), pp. 16-17.

5. Mackenzie (note 4 above), pp. 30-31.

6. There are, for example, more than 120 multilateral treaties in the field. See UNEP's Register of International Treaties and Other Agreements in the Field of the Environment (UNEP/GC 14/18 and later additions).

7. For example, the Yugoslav Constitution of 1974 (Articles 87, 192, and 193).

8. Article 24.

9. Principle 1.

10. World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Oxford University Press, 1987), Annex 1.

11. For example, in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights: Article 3 (the right to life): Article 22 [economic, social, and cultural rights); Article 25 ("a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being"), etc. Among other elements of the right, "the improvement of all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene" is mentioned in Article 12 (pare 2b) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

12. Principle I of the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment.

13. Paul Sieghart, The Lawful Rights of Mankind (Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 1985), 167.

14. Sieghart (note 13 above).

15. Preamble of the Declaration, UNGA Res 41/128 (Annex).

16. Seminar on Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments (New York, 1972), p. 7 (UN ST/TAO/HR/45).

17. Dr T.O. Elias, Africa and the Development of International law (A.W. Sijthoff-Leiden Oceana Publications Inc., Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1972), p. 213.

18. United Nations, Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments (UN, New York, 1982), p. 76.

19. Ecological standards can also be formally binding legal norms. For more about ecological standards, see: P. Contini and P. Sand, "Methods to Expedite Environment

Protection: International Ecostandard," American Journal of International Law, no. 1 (1972): 37-59; Vid Vukasovic, Rad Programa UN za covekow sredinu na njenom medunarodnopraunom regulisanju (Institute of International Politics and Economics, Belgrade, 1985), pp. 49-63. The general term "ecological standards" applies to all rules, formally binding or non-binding, in the field of environmental protection. In different documents they are, when it comes to terminology, called different things (lists of standards, technical rules, codices, eco standards, etc ).

20. Declaration on the Right to Development, UNGA Res 41/128, Article 7.

21. Joseph S. Nye Jr., "Ethics and the Nuclear Future," The World Today, vol. 42, nos. 8-9 (1986): 152.

22. Nye (note 21 above), p. 153.

23. Nye (note 21 above), p. 152.

24. See Unesco, Recommendation on the Position of Scientific Researchers, adopted on 20 November 1974 (especially chap. IV).

25. See, for example, Our Common Future (note 1() above), p. 330.

26. Our Common Future (note 10 above), fn. 24.

27. Fritjof Capra, The Turning Point: Scientific Society and the Rising Culture (Fontana, London, 1984), p. 234.

28. Efforts to improve international economic relations are often linked to both the protection of the environment and the protection and promotion of human rights. For example, the UN Declaration on the Right to Development (GA Res 41/128), the World Charter for Nature (GA Res 3201-2/S-VI); the Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (GA Res 32/XXIX), etc.

29. Our Common Future (note 10 above), p. 67, fn 25.

30. For NIEO see K. Hossain, ea., Legal Aspects or the New International Economic Order (London/New York, 1980); M. Bulajic, D. Pindic, and M. Marinkovic, ea., The Charter of Economic Rights and Duties of States (Belgrade, 1986).

31. Ralph Sanders, International Dynamics of Technology, Contributions in Political Sciences, no. 87 (Greenwood Press, London, 1983), p. 259.

32. Mackenzie (note 4 above), p. 64.

33. Mackenzie (note 4 above), p. 64.

34. Robert S. Cohen writes that "technical élites have finally come to their own peculiar roles, their power deriving from specialized competence; they are partially insulated from other élites and from democratic decision-making by a scientific and technological sophistication which easily allows for esoteric secrecy (whether military or industrial). International Social Science Journal, vol. 34, no. 1 (1982): 69. "Science and Technology in Global Perspective."

35. United Nations, The United Nations and Human Rights (UN, New York, 1984), p. 232.

36. The UN General Assembly in 1983 recognized that popular participation, including self-management, "constituted an important factor of socio-economic development, as weld as of respect for human rights" (The United Nations and Human Rights (note 35 above), p. 233. This important subject was on the agenda of the UN General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, and the Commission on Human Rights, as well as being the main topic of international conferences (for instance, the International Seminar on Popular Participation held in Ljubljana, Yugoslavia, 17-25 May 1982). See also P. Jambrek, "Participation as a Human Right and as a Means for Exercise of Human Rights" (Unesco Division of Human Rights and Peace, 1982) (Unesco doe. SS-82/WS/54).

37. Richard Falk, "Nuclear Weapons and the Renewal of Democracy," Nuclear Weapons and the Future of Humanity (Rowman & Allaheld, Totowa, N.J., 1986), p. 439.

38. Hajime Eto and Ryujiro Ishida, "Integrating Assessment in National Technological Policy," in Jacques Richardson, ea., Integrated Technology Transfer (Lomond Books, 1979), p. 121.

39. A.H. Robertson, Humanitarian Law and Human Rights studies and essays on international humanitarian law and Red Cross principles in honour of Jean Pictet (Geneva/ The Hague, 1984), p. 800.

40. Robertson (note 39 above), p. 802

41. Preamble of the UN Declaration on the Right to Development, UNGA Res 41/128.

42. Julian Le Grand writes, for instance, that: "In the case of health the conventional procedure has been to compare the health (usually mortality) experience of different social or occupational classes. . . Any attempt to apply this procedure to international comparisons, however, encounters the obvious difficulty that definitions of social class, and of the occupational classifications that underlie them, vary widely from country to country. The fact that the only successful comparisons have been undertaken between countries with great similarities in culture (and therefore in occupational classifications) reinforces the point." ]. Le Grand, "Inequalities in Health Some International Comparisons," Papers and Proceedings of the First Annual Congress of the European Economic Association, 29-31 August 1986, Vienna; European Economic Review vol. 31, nos. 1/2 (1987): 183.

43. Winfried Lang, "Environmental Protection - The Challenge for International Law," Journal of World Trade Law vol. 20 no. 5 (1'386): 495.

44. Nye (note 21 above), p. 154.

45. Nagendra Singh, "Sustainable Development as a Principle of International Law," inaugural address at the seminar convened by the Free University of Amsterdam, 9 April 1987, p. 21.


Rybczyuski, Witold. Taming the Tiger- The Struggle to Control Technology. Viking Press New York, 1983.

Sieghart, Paul. The Lawful Rights of Mankind: An Introduction to the International Legal Code of Human Rights. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 1985.

United Nations. Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments. United Nations, New York, 1982.
. The United Nations and Human Rights. United Nations, New York, 1984.

World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, Oxford/New York, 1987

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