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1. The original version of this paper was published in Nordic Journal of international Law, vol. 56, no. 4 (1987), as "Consideration of the Relationship between Scientific and Technological Developments and Human Rights in the United Nations Human Rights Fora."

2. Adopted at the 50th meeting, on 10 March 1986, without a vote. The text of the resolution appears in document E/1986/22.

3. E/CN.4/1986/SR.50, pare. 63.

4. E/CN.4/19861SR.21, pares. 18-22.

5. E/CN.4/1986/SR.22, pares. 6-7.

6. E/ 1986/22.

7. Project document dated 20 November 1986, UNU.

8. Project document (note 7 above), "2. Objective."

9. E/CN.4/1986/28.

10. Horst Keilau, "Scientific and Technological Progress and Humanism," in Daniel Premont et al, eds., Essays on the Concept of a "Right to Life" in Memory of Yougindra Khushalani (Bruyland, Brussels, 1987).

11. The International Conference on Human Rights was held in Tehran, Iran, from 22 April to 13 May 1968 in connection with the observance of the International Year for Human Rights, which marked the twentieth anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The purposes of the conference were to review the progress made in the field of human rights since the adoption of the Declaration, to evaluate the effectiveness of the methods used by the United Nations in the human rights field, and to formulate and prepare a programme of further measures to be taken subsequent to the celebration of the anniversary. The governments of 84 states were represented at the conference, which adopted the Proclamation of Tehran and 29 resolutions. These resolutions, and the general principles set out in the Proclamation, gave new directions to a great deal of the subsequent work of the United Nations in the field of human rights. See United Nations, Final Act of the International Conference of Human Rights (UN Sales no. E.68.XIV.2).

12. EN/CN.4/1023 and Add 1-3 and Add 3/Corr 1 and 2 and Add 4-6.

13. For a summary of the discussion on the report, see E/4949, pares. 175-192; E/CN.4/ SR 11191127.

14. A/9937, para. 11.

15. A/10330.

16. E/CN.4/1172 and Corr 1 and Add 1-3.

17. E/CN.4/1199 and Add 1.

18. E/CN.4/1196.

19. E/CN.4/1234.

20. E/CN.4/1235.

21. E/CN.4/1236.

22. See below.

23. E/CN.4/Sub.2/474.

24. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1982/16.

25. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1982/17.

26. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1982/SR.36 and E/CN.4/1982/4, chap. 1, section A, draft resolution IX.

27. Sub-Commission decision 1985/112. See E/CN.4/1986/5, paras. 317-323.

28. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1987/32.

29. E/CN.4/Sub.2/490.

30. E/CN.4/1512, paras. 205-209.

31. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1983118.

32. Sub-Commission resolution 1984/12.

33. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1985/21.

34. Sub-Commission resolution 1985/14.

35. The Commission had made such a request in 1981 and 1982 in resolutions 38 (XXXVII) of 12 March 1981 and 1982/4 of 9 February 1982.

36. E/CN.4/1986/5, pares. 307-312.

37. United Nations, Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments, pp. 91-92 (DPI/726-41527-1982-DM).

38. E/CN.4/1986/SR.21, pares. 19-20.

39. E/CN.4/1986/28,

40. For example, E/CN.4/1986/SR.21, pares. 15, 16, 21, and 22.

41. E/CN.4/1512, pare. 206.

42. E/CN.4/1142.

43. J.M. Ziman, P. Sieghard, and J. Humphrey, The World of Science and The Rule of Law (Oxford University Press, 1986).

44. E/CN.4/1199 of 2 February 1974, para. 4.

45. Ziman et al. (note 43 above), p. 6.

46. Ziman et al. (note 43 above), p. 6.

47. Intervention at 1983 Commission on Human Rights.

48. Reply of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics of 13 February 1985, in E/CN.4/ 1986/28.

49. Ziman et al. (note 43 above).

50. K. Tomasevski, "Hazardous Exports: Access to Information Necessary for Selfprotection," paper prepared for the 10th University of Windsor Symposium on Law and Development Combating Process of Rural Impoverishment: Law as an Obstacle and a Resource for Victims, 5-8 November 1986, p. 1.

51. See also United Nations Action in the Field of Human Rights, p. 256 (ST/HR/Rev.2), (UN Sales no. E.83XIV.2).

52. A non-governmental organization in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (category II).

53. E/CN.4/1986/SR.21.

54. J Pérez de Cuellar, Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (1985), p. 17.

55. P. Alston, "International Law and the Human Right to Food," in P. Alston and K. Tomasevski, eds., The Right to Food (Nijhoff, The Hague, 1984), p. 12.

56. Regarding the question of law and human rights in the wake of technology, see C.G. Weeramantry, The Slumbering Sentinels (Penguin Books, 1983).

57. Theo van Boven, "Book Review on Alston and Tomasevski, The Right to Food," Netherlands International Law Review, vol. 3, no. 1 (1986).

58. E/CN.4/1987/11.

59. P. Jambrek, "Participation as a Human Right and as a Means for Exercise of Human Rights" (Paris, 1982), p. I (Unesco doe. SS-82/WS/54).

60. Jambrek (note 59 above).

61. Project document (note 7 above).

62. See note 44 above.

63. United Nations (note 37 above).

64. E/CN.4/1984/SR.28, pare. 11.

65. E/CN.4/1986/40 and E/CN.4/1987/38.

66. Preliminary Report on the Project on Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Development was submitted by the United Nations University to the Commission on Human Rights at its forty-fourth session, E/CN.4/1987/48. Subsequently, the Commission adopted resolution 1988/59, in which it invited the United Nations University, in co-operation with other academic and research institutions, to continue to study both the positive and the negative impact of scientific and technological developments on human rights and fundamental freedoms and expressed the hope that the United Nations University would inform the Commission at its forty-sixth session of the results of its study on the question.


Daes, E.-I. Principles, Guidelines and Guarantees for the Protection of Persons Detained on Grounds of Mental III-Health or Suffering from Mental Disorder. (UN Sales no. E.85 XIV 9; UN doe. E/CN.4/Sub.2/1983/17/Rev.1.)

Jambrek, P. Participation as a Human Right and as a Means for Exercise of Human Rights. Unesco, Paris, 1982. (Unesco doe. 55-82/WS/54.)

Keilau, Horst. Scientific and Technological Progress and Humanism. In: Daniel Premont et al., ea., Essays on the Concept of a "Right to Life" in memory of Yougindra Khushalani. Bruyland, Brussels, 1987.

Kubota, Yo. Consideration of the Relationship between Scientific and Technological Developments and Human Rights in the United Nations Human Rights Fora. Nordic Journal of International Law, vol. 56, no. 4 (1987).

UNCTAD. An International Code of Conduct on Transfer of Technology. (UNCTAD doe. TD/B/C.6/AC. 1/2/Suppl.1./Rev. I, 1975.)

United Nations. Human Rights and Scientific and Technological Developments. (DPI/72641527-1982-DM.)

Weeramantry, C.G. The Slumbering Sentinels. Penguin Books, 1983.

Ziman, J.M., P. Sieghard, and J. Humphrey. The World of Science and the Role of Law. Oxford University Press, 1986.

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