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1. Friedrich Rapp, "Philosophy of Technology," Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey, vol. 2 (Marinus Nijhoff The Hague/Boston/London, 1982), pp. 376-378, in reference to H. Rumpf, G. Simondon, and A G. van Melsen.

2. A. Rahman, "The Interaction between Science, Technology and Society: Historical and Comparative Perspective," International Social Science Journal, vol. 33, no. 3 (1981): 508-518. For a more detailed discussion of the impact of European science on South Asia, see Susantha Goonatilake, Aborted Discovery: Science and Creativity in the Third World (Zed Books Ltd. London, 1984), chaps. 3 and 5.

3. Robert S. Cohen, "Science and Technology in Global Perspective," International Social Srience Journal, vol. 34, no. 1. (1982): 63.

4. Cohen (note 3 above), p. 62.

5. W.F. Wertheim, Evolution and Revolution: The Rising Wave of Emancipation (Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1974), p. 47. See also pp. 35-48 for elucidation of the criterion of progress and the emancipation principle.

6. Rapp (note I above), p. 361; Celso Furtado, "Development," International Social Science Journal, vol. 29, no. 4 (1977): 628-629.

7. Johan Galtung, "Towards a New International Technological Order," In North/South Debate: Technology, Basic Human Needs and the New International Order, Working Paper no. 12, World Order Models Project (Institute for World Order, New York, 1980), p. 4.

8. Goonatilake (note 2 above), pp. 1-2.

9. Goonatilake (note 2 above), pp. 1 and 80-81. As stressed here, the search for explanation of physical reality involves not only physical science but also social science.

10. Cohen (note 3 above); Peter Grootings, ed., Technology and Work: East- West Comparison (Croom Helm, London/Sydney/New Hampshire, 1986), pp. 277-283.

11. Richard P. Claude, ea., Comparative Human Rights (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore/London, 1976), p. 7.

12. Claude (note 11 above), pp. 41-42.

13. Quoted in T.B. Bottomore, Elites and Society (Basic Books, New York, 1964), p. 34.

14. Saneh Chamarik, "Buddhism and Human Rights," Human Rights Teaching, Unesco Biannual Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 1.(1981): 16. On the point of the conceptual shortcomings of liberalism, see C.G. Weeramantry, Equality and Freedom: Some Third World Perspectives (Hansa Publishers Limited, Colombo, 1976), p. 10; and Fouad Ajami, "Human Rights and World Order Politics," World Order Model Project, Occasional Paper no. 4 (Institute of World Order, New York, 1978), pp. 2-4.

15. John Locke, Two Treatises of Civil Government, reprinted by J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd (London, 1953), pp. 119 and 129-141.

16. Cohen (note 3 above); Furtado (note 6 above), pp 630-631

17. Paul-Henry Chombart de Lauwe, "Technological Domination and Cultural Dynamism," lnternational Social Srience Journal, vol. 38, no. 1 (1986): 105-109.

18. Chombart de Lauwe (note 17 above), p. 107.

19. Goonatilake (note 2 above), pp. 9]-114.

20. A. Rahman (note 2 above), p. 520

21. Goonatilake (note 2 above).

22. Chombart de Lauwe (note 17 above), p. 108.

23. Referred to in Donald Wilhelm. Creative Alternatives to Communism: Guidelines for Tomorrow's World (Macmillan, London, 1977), p. 84.

24. Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (Bantam Books, 1981), pp. 99-102.

25. Goonatilake (note 2 above), pp. 114-116.

26. For instance, Thamrong Prempridi et al., Self-Reliance in Science and Technology for National Development: Case Study of Thailand Final Research Report submitted to the United Nations University, Tokyo, December 1986, pp. 86-90. In Thailand, with which this writer is particularly familiar, it is precisely this aspect of local wisdom and potential creativity that attracts specific attention among NGO volunteers after their long experience with rural development work. There arc no doubt similar trends of interest in other developing countries.

27. For instance, P H. Chombart de Lauwe (note 17 above), pp. 108-109.

28. The six country studies are to be referred to in this paper respectively as the Philippines Report, Thailand Report, China Report, India Report, Korea Report, end Japan Report.

29. Takeshi Hayashi, Project or, Technology Transfer Transformation and Development: The Japanese Experience (United Nations University, Tokyo, 1984), pp. 2-3.

30. Enrique Oteiza and Francisco Sercovich, "Collective Self-Reliance: Selected Issues," International Social Science Journal, vol. 28, no. 4 (1976): 666-667. See also Dieter Ernst, "Technology Policy for Self-Reliance: Some Major Issues," International Social Science Journal, vol. 33, no. 3 (1981), p. 476.

31. Report on the Workshop on Self-reliance in Science and Technology, The United Nations University, Tokyo, 31 October-3 November 1984, p. '). See also Ernst (note 30 above), p. 467.

32. Ernst (note 30 above), pp. 467-471.

33. As reflected, for example, in the Korea Report, pp. 16-25.

34. Ernst (note 30 above), p. 468.

35. Chombart de Lauwe (note 17 above), pp. 109- 111.

36. For the dependent state of science education, both physical and social, see Goonatilake (note 2 above), pp. 97-116.

37. Ernst (note 30 above), p. 467.

38. Ernst (note 30 above), p. 469.

39. Gunnarsson, "Development Theory and Third World Industrialisation," Journal of Contemporary Asia vol. 15, no. 2(1985): 198-200.

40. The United Nations University's workshop report on Self-reliance in Science and Technology, Beijing, 6-10 October 1985.

41. Oteiza and Sercovich (note 30 above), p. 667.

42. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 15(b).

43. Ajami (note 14 above).


Claude, Richard P., ed. Comparative Human Rights. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore/London, 1976.

Goonatilake, Susantha. Aborted Discovery: Science al/d Creativity in the Third World. Zed Books Ltd. London, 1984.

Grootings, Peter, ed. 'Technology and Work: East-West Comparison Croom Helm, London/Sydney/New Hampshire, 1986.

Rapp, Friedrich. Philosophy of Technology. Contemporary Philosophy: A New Survey. Vol.2. Marinus Nijhoff, The Hague/Boston/London, 1982.

Weeramantry, C G. Equality and Freedom: Some Third World Perspectives. Hansa Publishers Ltd. Colombo, 1976.

Wertheim, W.F. Evolution and Revolution The Rising Wave of Emancipation Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1974.

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