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Appendix 1

Indicators of self-reliance in science and technology

System characteristics Variables Indicators Values Empirical references
1. Goal-setting 1.1 Emphasis on learning in the formulation of goals 1.11 Existence of technical training programmes in corporate plans 1 No explicit training programme in plans
2 Training programmes not complete only for the low-skill components. Not on critical aspects of the technology
3 Detailed training programme aimed at ultimate takeover by local experts
1.12 Existence of R&D programme in corporate plan 1 No explicit R&D programme
2 Some R&D programmes but on minor aspects of the technology
3 Detailed R&D programme for product improvement
1.2 Emphasis on local autonomy 1.21 Existence of plans for local autonomy 1 No explicit programme for the attainment of local autonomy
2 Some aspects are programmed for local autonomy
3 Detailed programme for local autonomy, e.g. sale of equity of nationals
1.22 Plans for vertical integration 1 No explicit plans for vertical integration
2 There are plans for partial integration
3 Detailed programme for vertical integration
1.3 Articulation of techno- system policies 1.31 Role of nationals in policy formulation 1 Techno-system policy fully controlled or influenced by foreigners
2 Techno-system policies partly influenced by foreigners
3 Techno-system policies fully controlled by Philippine nationals
2. Control 2.1 Role of nationals in corporate decision- making 2.11 Nationality of management 1 Top-level decision makers are foreign nationals
2 Medium-level decision makers are foreign nationals
3 Top-level decision makers are Philippine nationals
2.12 Equity of participation of nationals in corporations 1 No equity participation of Philippine nationals
2 Partial participation by Philippine nationals
3 Equity fully owned by Philippine nationals
2.2 Role of nationals in the flow of inputs 2.21 Control of managerial inputs 1 Full control by foreign nationals
2 Partial control by Philippine nationals
3 Full control by Philippine nationals
2.22 Control of technological inputs 1 Full control by foreign nationals
2 Partial control by foreign/ Philippine nationals
3 Full control by Philippine nationals
2.23 Control of material inputs 1 Full control by foreign nationals
2 Partial control by Philippine nationals
3 Full control by Philippine nationals
2.24 Control of financing 1 Full control by foreign nationals
2 Partial control by Philippine nationals
3 Full control by Philippine nationals
3. Dynamics 3.1 Innovation by Filipinos in the relevant technologies 3.11 Number of innovations in the industry 1 No important innovations at all by Filipinos
2 Some important innovations by Filipinos
3 Great number of innovations by Filipinos
3.12 Quality of technical innovations by Filipinos 1 No, or very little, value for the industry
2 Some technical innovations are of high quality
3 Most of the technical innovations are of high quality
3.13 Use of local material inputs to the various process 1 No change in the character of material inputs (or increasing use of foreign material inputs)
2 Some increase in the use of local material inputs
3 Most of the material inputs are now local
3.14 Adaptations of some of the processes to local conditions 1 No change in the production processes
2 There have been some adaptations to local conditions
3 There are many important adaptations to local conditions
3.2 Change in number of Filipinos with relevant know-how 3.21 Change in number of Filipinos with the technical know-how in relevant technologies 1 No change or decrease in the number of Filipinos with technical know-how
2 There has been a significant increase in the number of Filipinos with technical know-how
3 There has been some increase in the number of Filipinos with technical know-how
3.22 Change in the number of Filipinos with managerial know-how 1 No change or decrease
2 Same but not much increase
3 There has been a significant increase in number of Filipinos with managerial know-how
4. Systems memory 4.1 Documentation (books, manuals, journals) of the techniques 4.11 Existence of technical industry library locally 1 No specialized technical library/literature collection for the relevant technologies
2 Same but not adequate
3 Adequate specialized technical library
4.12 Existence of historical industry statistics 1 No statistics are being kept locally
2 Some statistics are being gathered but there are important gaps
3 Adequate statistics are being gathered by the local industry
4.2 Quality of information subsystem 4.21 Technological capacity 1 Operative/adaptive capacity
2 Replicative capacity
3 Innovative/creative capacity
5. System feedbacks 5.1 Linkage of the industry with local R&D 5.11 Support of local R&D by industry 1 The industry/company has not supported any local R&D
2 The industry/company has supported some local R&D
3 The industry/company has its own R&D unit
5.12 Utilization of R&D results 1 The industry or company has not used any local R&D results
2 The industry has utilized some of the results of local R&D
3 The industry or company has been utilizing most of the results of local R&D
5.2 Linkage of the industry with training and educational programme 5.21 Utilization of locally trained technicians and engineers 1 Most of the technicians or engineers are foreign-trained
2 Some of the technicians are foreign-trained
3 Most of the technicians or engineers are locally trained
6. Systems maintenance 6.1 Adequacy of local technological educational systems 6.11 Relevance of curricula to the industry 1 Curricula not relevant to the needs of industry
2 Curricula partly relevant to the needs of industry
3 Curricula very relevant to the needs of industry
6.12 Adequacy of number of graduates 1 Number of graduates is not enough
2 Number of graduates is barely enough for the industry
6.13 Quality of the graduates 1 Local graduates are not good enough for the industry
2 Local graduates are barely qualified and need further training
3 Local graduates are quite qualified to work for the industry
6.2 Adequacy of local supply of industry hardware and maintenance 6.22 Local supply of hardware 1 Almost all machinery and spare parts are imported
2 About half of the required hardware is available locally
3 Most of the required hardware is available locally
6.23 Local maintenance of hardware 1 Hardware is maintained mostly by foreigners
2 Maintenance is partly done by Filipinos
3 Maintenance of hardware is mostly by Filipinos
7. Interdependence/ integration 7.1 Existence of the various components of the techno-system for product X 1 Only the extraction subsystem and minor subsystem exist locally
2 Some of the critical subsystems exist locally
3 All the critical subsystems are found locally
7.2 Interdependence/linkage of the subsystems 1 The various subsystems are not linked with or dependent on one another
2 Partial linkage of the various subsystems and components
3 All the various subsystems and components are linked with one another

Appendix 2. Major achievements of S&T in the Philippines

(Source: EVSA)

Several NSTA projects spearheaded exploratory efforts in new areas of research. These projects established the technical feasibility of potential technologies and provided valuable baseline data for subsequent development efforts. Several other projects were undertaken to provide scientific and technological inputs to support the government's thrusts and priorities.

Agriculture and natural resources

Development of IR20, one of the most insect- and disease-resistant rice varieties used in the Masagana 99 programme.

Development of yellow corn varieties, e.g. Protena (with higher protein content than the other varieties).

Development of new soybean varieties, e.g. Tiwala, with as much as 150 per cent yield increase over the average national yield.

Improvement of cowpea varieties, resulting in six superior varieties which outyield similar Philippine Seedboard varieties.

Development of eight disease-resistant and high-yielding mungbean varieties including Pag-asa, the first variety released by the Philippine Seedboard.

Development of high-yielding cassava varieties.

Demonstration of the feasibility of local production of wheat.

Development of local wheat varieties with commercial potential.

Improved cropping systems technology for areas that rely solely on rain for moisture.

Development of new agro-fishery techniques which allow the profitable culture in captivity of shrimps and mussels, monosex tilapia, bangus-tilapia, and rice-fish.

Development of integrated fish-crop-livestock farming system.

Monoculture and polyculture of tilapia, carp, shrimps, and bivalves.

Development of floating cage culture of fish.

Development of fish culture techniques which increased milkfish production yield from 565 to 2,000 kg/ha/yr and tilapia yield from 3 to 5 tons/ha/yr.

Improvement of breeding, raising, feeding, and management techniques of local dairy animals to develop the local dairy industry.

Production of new pig strain which performed on a par with the York shire and the Hampshire from crosses between native pigs and standard breeds.

Development of a single-comb White Leghorn strain of chicken with high egg production, longevity, and hatchability.

Genetic improvements in Philippine commercial broiler chicken.

Conversion of agricultural and industrial wastes, such as banana rejects, rice hull, and straw, to animal feeds.

Substitution of costly yellow corn cassava in poultry ration.

Breeding of sunflower varieties and their utilization as a source of feedmeal and oil.

Determination of the water requirements of rice production, which formed part of the basis by which irrigation systems were designed and rehabilitated.

Innovative use of abaca for the rehabilitation of the Lake Caliraya watershed.

Adaptation of land satellite (landsat) remote-sensing as a rapid and cost-effective method of environmental and resource survey.

Improvement of plant pest and disease surveillance system, resulting in reduced field losses.

Industry and energy

Pioneering geological surveys of thermal springs as potential sources of electricity.

Demonstration of the feasibility of generating electric power using geothermal energy, so that the Philippines would become the second-largest producer in the world.

Industrial use of geothermal steam, e.g. production of iodized salt, grain drying, and fish canning.

Assessment of natural gas see pages in the country and their utilization for household cooking and lighting.

Establishment of the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing natural and man-made forests in the Philippines as sources of heat energy.

Pioneering production of biogas from animal and agricultural wastes.

Development and use of improvised strains of yeast for alcohol production.

Production of coco-diesel or petroleum fuel substitutes from coconut oil.

Development of several fuel-saving devices for automobiles which allow replacement of 20-40 per cent petroleum fuel with ethyl alcohol.

Production of producer gas from charcoal and development of its use in driving irrigation diesel pump.

Improved method of charcoal production yielding smokeless, well charred product.

Local production of charcoal briquettes.

Design and fabrication of important machines in industry, like the lumber dry kiln for the furniture industry and the abaca defibring machine.

Development of silkworm-rearing and silk-making techniques, resulting in a revival of silk production in the Philippines.

Commercial production of cotton in the Philippines.

Assessment of ceramic raw material deposits in the country to locate appropriate material for earthenware, stoneware, and refractories.

Improvement of ceramic technology, e.g. formulation of clay mix and introduction of locally fabricated equipment.

Development of clay bricks, floor and roofing tiles as housing materials.

Production of hollow blocks from soil and agri-wastes like bagasse and rice hull.

Characterization and use of secondary or lesser-known wood species.

Production of particleboards from secondary wood species and agri-wastes for use as panelling and roofing materials.

Conversion of coconut logs into lumber.

Conversion of tropical hardwood into pulp and paper, which led to the local production of newsprint.

Use of abaca fibre in preparing high-quality pulp for use in the manufacture of fine and specialty papers.

Improvement of oleoresin products from Benguet pine resins, which helped accelerate the growth of pigment and resin manufacturing industry.

Development of containers and other packaging materials for fruits and fish from indigenous materials, e.g. abaca fibre, banana stalks, coconut lumber.

Establishment of minimum thermal processes for some canned foods.

Processing and preservation of fish, meat, and vegetables.

Integrated coconut processing with products from coconut milk to activated carbon.

Production of chemicals for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries from coconut oil.

Creation of artificial rain through cloud seeding, using smoke generator and meterological balloon.

Determination of the meteorological parameters in the development of typhoons for more accurate prediction.

Design and fabrication of appropriate low-cost equipment for small and medium industries, e.g. chipping machines, wood-fired boilers, mixer machines.

Local manufacture of aircraft parts.

Nationwide survey of mercury and other heavy metal pollution, the results of which prompted the NPCC to impose sanctions on the industries responsible.

Support for the fabrication of prototype models.

Health and nutrition

Food consumption surveys to accumulate household nutritional data as basis for more effective policy-making and planning in agriculture and nutrition.

Development of low-cost, high-protein snack-food items, weaning food, and noodle formulations from indigenous sources like legumes and coconut.

Use of beef blood for iron supplementation.

Establishment of the relationship between aflatoxin loads and primary cancer of the liver.

Use of coconut water as a replacement fluid for children and adults suffering from diarrhoea.

Modification of approaches in health-care delivery to utilize paramedics or resident health workers.

Establishment of the prevalence, cause, and mortality record of cardiovascular diseases.

Identification and use of Philippine medicinal plants for inclusion in the Philippine National Formulary.

Pilot plant production of tablets and suspensions from such plants as lagundi, niyog-niyogan, and yerba buena.

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