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1. P.C. Mahalanobis, Talks on Planning, Calcutta: Indian Statistical Institute, 1961, especially pp. 69-70.

2. I.e. the fourth (1969-1974), fifth (1974-1979), and sixth (1980-1985) Five-Year Plans. Planning Commission, Five Year Plans.

3. Vijay L. Kelkar, "India in the World Economy, Search for Self-reliance," Economic and Political Weekly, annual no., February 1980.

4. Central Statistical Organisation, National Accounts Statistics, New Delhi, 1987.

5. V.L. Kelkar and K.M. Raipuria, Manufactures Exports in India's Development: Policy Options for the Eighties, Tilburgo, Netherlands: IDPAD, 1985.

6. Planning Commission, Sixth Five Year Plan, 1980-85, and C. Rangarajan, "Seventh Plan Industrial Prospects and Opportunities," Economic Times, 6 May 1986.

7. For a recent discussion, see V.R. Panchamukhi and K.M. Raipuria, "Productivity and Development Strategy in India: Major Dimensions, Issues and Trends 1965/66 to 1982183," RIS Monograph no. 2, 1985; revised version, March 1986.

8. See note 7 above.

9. Planning Commission, The Seventh Five Year Plan, vol. 1, p. 10.

10. Planning Commission, The Third Five Year Plan, 1961-66. p. 107.

11. Planning Commission, The Sixth Five Year Plan, 1980-85, p. 320.

12. See note 11 above, and Planning Commission, The Fifth Five Year Plan, 1974-79, p. 231.

13. It is proposed to adopt 'zero-based budgeting' in regard to total Plan and non-Plan outlay for S&T in the seventh Plan.

14. This discussion draws on Nagesh Kumar, "Technology Policy In India: An Overview of Its Evolution and an Assessment," in P.R. Brahmananda and V.R. Panchamukhi, eds., The Development Process of Indian Economy, Bombay: Himalaya, 1987, pp. 461-492.

15. See Ministry of Industry, Guidelines for Industries, Part 1, Policy and Procedures, New Delhi: Indian Investment Centre, 1982, chap. 4.

16. DSIR, Annual Report 1985186, New Delhi: Gov. of India, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1986.

17. Ashok V. Desai, "The Origin and Direction of Industrial R&D in India," Research Policy 9 (1980):85.

18. Indian Investment Centre, Technologies from India, New Delhi: IIC, 1982.

19. See note 16 above.

20. For instance, see Desai (note 17 above) and Nagesh Kumar, "Cost of Technology Imports: The Indian Experience," Economic and Political Weekly 20, 31 August 1985, pp. M-103- 114.

21. See, for instance, India Today, 15 June 1984.

22. The Long Term Fiscal Policy Statement, 1985.

23. India 1984: A Reference Annual, New Delhi: Government of India, Publication Division, 1989, p. 84.

24. For example, J.C. Ghosh, Presidential Address of 1943 to National Institute of Sciences in India, Madras, quoted by Mahalanobis (note I above).

25. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Annual Report 1985-86, p. 28.

26. India: Non-electrical Industrial Machinery Manufacturing - A Subsector Study, document of the World Bank, Report no. 5095-lN, 2 August 1984, reviewed in Economic and Political Weekly 20, 12 October 1985, pp. 1724-1725.

27. See note 26 above.

28. This study was commissioned by the Confederation of (Indian) Engineering Industry (CEI) and has been cited by K.C. Khanna, "Why Industry Stagnates," Times of India, 28 October 1986.

29. See note 26 above.

30. See, for instance, Ashok Desai, "The Origin and Direction of Industrial R&D in India," Research Policy 9 (1980): 74-96.

31. See the unpublished interviews conducted by Carlos Cordeiro and reported in Louis T. Wells, Jr, Third World Multinationals: The Rise of Foreign Investment from Developing Countries, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1983.

32. See review of studies in Nagesh Kumar, "Foreign Direct Investments and Technology Transfers among Developing Countries," in V.R. Panchamukhi et al.' eds., The Third World and the World Economic System, New Delhi: Radiant, 1986, pp. 139-165.

33. Richard Thomas, India's Emergence as an Industrial Power, New Delhi: Vikas, 1982.

34. See Donald J. Lecraw, "Direct Investment by Firms from Less Developed Countries,`` Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 29, 1977, pp. 442-457.

35. Revealed by M.M. Mehta of Tractor Manufactures Association at the National Seminar on In-house R&D in Industry, organized by DSIR and CEI, New Delhi, April 1987, and reported in Sunil Mani, "Small Sector Scores in In-house R and D," Economic and Political Weekly, 18 July 1987, pp. 1174-1176.

36. Revealed in different presentations at the National Seminar reported in note 35.

37. A.S. Bhalla, "Can High Technology Help Third World Take-Off?" Economic and Political Weekly, 4 July 1987, pp. 1082-1085.

38. Norbert Konrad and Dietrich Wahl, "Scientific and Technological Potentials in Developing Countries as National and International Economic Factors," Economic Quarterly 20 (1985), no. 3: 3-18.

39. See note 38 above.

40. Sanjaya Lall, "Trade in Technology by a Slowly Industrialising Country: India," Multina-honals, Technology and Exports Selected Papers, London: Macmillan, 1985, pp. 203-226.

41. See note 40 above.

42. For instance, the gross income of NRDC, which is the sole agency for licensing CSIR innovations, from royalty and premia on account of licensing in the year 1981182 was a meagre Rs. 10.2 million, compared to remittances of Rs. 2,866.9 million sent abroad by enterprises in royalty and technical know-how fees in the same year and an expenditure of nearly Rs. 100 crores in CSIR laboratories. See Department of Science and Technology, Research and Development Statistics, 1980-81, New Delhi: DST, 1982.

43. See Desai (note 17 above) and G. Alam and J. Langrish, "Government Research and its Utilisation by Industry: The Case of Industrial Civil Research in India," Research Policy, January 1984.

44. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Annual Report 1985186.

45. The following discussion draws on Nagesh Kumar, "Technology Policy in India: An Overview of its Evolution and an Assessment," in P.R. Brahmananda and V.R. Panchamukhi, eds., The Development Process of the Indian Economy, Bombay: Himalaya, 1987, pp. 461492.

46. See Amiya Kumar Bagchi, "Public Sector Industry and Quest for Self-reliance in India." Economic and Political Weekly, special number, 1982, pp. 615-628.

47. See Morten I. Kamien and Nancy Schwartz, Market Structures and Innovation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982, for a survey of the literature.

48. See Ashok V. Desai, Market Structure and Technology: Their Independence in Indian Industry, WEP Working Paper no. 117, Geneva: International Labour Office, 1983; and Nagesh Kumar, "Technology Imports and Local Research and Development in Indian Manufacturing," The Developing Economies 25 (1987), no. 3, for empirical evidence. Katrak, in his empirical study of Indian manufacturing, also finds that larger enterprises undertake pro portionately less R&D than smaller ones: see Homi Katrak, "Imported Technology, Enterprise Size and R&D in a Newly Industrialising Country: The Indian Experience," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 47 (1985): 213-229.

49. See Kumar (note 45 above) for an elaboration of this point.

50. See Kumar (note 48 above) and K.K. Subrahmanian, "Towards Technological Self-reliance: An Assessment of Indian Strategy and Achievement in Industry," in P.R. Brahmananda and V.R. Panchamukhi, eds. (note 45 above), pp. 420-446, for evidence at industry level. DGTD studies cited in P. Mohanan Pillai, "Technology Transfer, Adaptation and Assimilation," Economic and Political Weekly', November 1979, pp. M-121-126, and UNCTAD, Technology Issues in the Capital Goods Sector: A Case Study of Leading Machinery Producers in India. Geneva: UNCTAD, 1983, provide evidence at the firm level.

51. An earlier study of the Indian tractor industry also reached a similar conclusion: see Ward Morehouse, "Technology and Enterprise Performance in the Indian Tractor Industry: Does Self-reliance Measure Up?," Economic and Political Weekly, 20 December 1980, pp. 21392152.

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