This is the old United Nations University website. Visit the new site at http://unu.edu


Technological independence - The Asian experience


Table of Contents


Edited by:
Saneh Chamarik and Susantha Goonatilake

The United Nations University, 1994

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

United Nations University Press
The United Nations University, 53-70, Jingumae 5-chome,
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150, Japan
Tel: (03)3499-2811 Fax: (03)3499-2811
Telex: J25442 Cable: UNATUNIV TOKYO
Typeset by Asco Trade Typesetting Limited, Hong Kong
Printed by Permanent Typesetting and Printing Co., Ltd.,
Hong Kong
Cover design by Apex Production, Hong Kong
UNUP-758
ISBN 92-808-0758-7
United Nations Sales No. E.93.III.A.1
04000 P

The United Nations University is an organ of the United Nations established by the General Assembly in 1972 to be an international community of scholars engaged in research, advanced training, and the dissemination of knowledge related to the pressing global problems of human survival, development, and welfare. Its activities focus mainly on peace and conflict resolution, development in a changing world. and science and technology in relation to human welfare. The University operates through a worldwide network of research and postgraduate training centres, with its planning and coordinating headquarters in Tokyo.


Contents


Note to the reader from the UNU

Introduction

The region and the global historical setting
Post-second world war geopolitics
New technologies
The study
Notes

1. India

Background
Development perspectives in the indian economy
Technology policy
R&D and self-reliance
India's technological capability: an international comparison
Case-studies
Factors in technological development
Concluding remarks
Notes

2. China

Historical perspective
National factor endowments
Case-studies in the different economic sectors
Exogenous sources for technological progress and self-reliance
A desirable path and a strategy for S&T development

3. The Republic of Korea

Preamble
History
Development policies and strategies from the 1960s to the 1980s
The plans
Impact on the agricultural and industrial sectors
Science and technology in korea before the 1960s
The role of science and technology in recent development
Science and technology and the exogenous environment
Education and training
Research and development
Reassessment of the policy and strategy
Achievements in industrial development
The electronics industry as a case-study
Self-reliance targets at each stage
Problems and issues
Future plan for self-reliance of science and technology
The long-term goals and strategy of national development
Role of science and technology for future development
Long-term goal of S&T development
Summing-up and regional cooperation
Regional cooperation
Bibliography

4. Thailand

Traditional path of development
Development of the country in the national plans (1961-1986)
An evaluation of Thailand's present S&T situation: a macro-level study
Case-studies in agriculture
A desirable path
Bibliography

5 The Philippines

The historical roots of technological dependence
S&T policy: rhetoric and reality
Case-studies
Case-study results
Technological dependence: nature and consequences
S&T in the Philippines: inputs and outputs
The vicious circle paradigm
The anatomy of technology transfer
The search for models: learning from Asia
Vision and commitment
Toward a leap-frogging strategy
Notes
Bibliography
Appendix 1
Appendix 2. Major achievements of S&T in the Philippines

6. Japan

Introduction
Five stages from "technology transfer" to "self-reliance"
Three stages to technological self-reliance
Degree of self-reliance of technology
Low estimation of imported technology
Historical perspectives on self-reliance
Case-studies
Japan's experience and Asian perspectives
Japanese multinational enterprises and their role in technological self-reliance in Asia
Performance of Japanese affiliates in Asia
Technological self-reliance in Asia: in search of a new international technology order
Notes

7. The lessons from Asia: From past experience to the future

China
India
Republic of Korea
Thailand
Philippines
Japan
The geopolitical environment and the local socio-economic situation
Formal S&T structure and industry
The rural-urban relationship
Informal and formal sectors
New generic technologies
Social shaping of technology
Conscious shaping of the technology
Existing agendas for shaping technology
Concluding remarks
Notes

Contributors

Other titles of interest