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Illustrations

Fig. 1. Heat flow through an external wall of uniform material of given thickness.

Fig. 2. Heat flow through an external wall of composite materials.

Fig. 3. Relationship between the radiation incident on a building surface and the heat gain of the structure.

Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the modes of heat gain and loss in a building.

Fig. 5. Plan and section of the sun-dried mud-brick vault-and-dome test model used to observe diurnal temperature fluctuations.

Fig. 6. Plan and section of the prefabricated concrete test model used to observe diurnal temperature fluctuations.

Fig. 7. Comparison of indoor and outdoor air-temperature fluctuations within a 24-hour period for the mud-brick vault-and-dome test model.

Fig. 8. Comparison of indoor and outdoor air-temperature fluctuations within a 24-hour period for the prefabricated concrete test model.

Fig. 9. Optimal orientation of a row of houses with regard to both

Fig. 10 Plan for two rows of houses showing the malqaf or wind catch of each arranged to bring wind to the dwelling (a), and details of a malqaf(b).

Fig. 11. Plan of a room in Cairo exposed to the north at sunrise on the summer solstice. with the sun's rays at declination angle of 27 20'.

Fig. 12. Angle of altitude at noon for a southern facade in Cairo.

Fig. 17. Difficulty of adjusting venetian blinds in summer: (a) the position for the optimal direction of the air movement is undesirable with regard to sunshine; (b) the optimal position for blocking sunlight is undesirable with regard to the wind direction.

Fig. 20. (opposite) Analysis of light falling on a mashrabiya: (a) examples of lattice arrangements; and (b) the effect of light falling on a cylinder. The graduated light and shade of the cylinder subdue the dazzling effect of dark-light contrast which occurs when looking from the inside toward the light outside.

Fig. 31. (above) Section through the reception room of a modern villa designed for Saudi Arabia showing the use of mashrabiya. This design incorporates a complete climatic system including malqaf, room, dur-q'a and sahn (courtyard). The decorations harmonize the scale of the imposing structure of which the dur-q 'a is 13 m (43 ft) high. Design by Hassan Fathy.

Fig. 34. (above) Funnel with a side tube to illustrate the Bernoulli effect.

Fig. 36. (bottom right) Schematic drawing, showing the aerodynamic principles that provide a comfortable breeze in a loggia of the type shown in fig. 35. The positive and negative signs indicate the regions of pressure build-up and deficiency, respectively A detailed analysis of the aerodynamic lines of air movement is important when applying scientific principles to optimal thermal comfort.

Fig. 44. Plan of part of the Sidi Krer house, Alexandria, Egypt. showing details for the pump room under the courtyard. Design by Hassan Fathy

Fig. 45. Plan and section of the pump room of the Sidi Krer house, Alexandria, showing the ventilation generated by the wind-escape. Design by Hassan Fathy.

Fig.47.(above) Plan of the Q'a of Muhib Ad-Din Ash-Shf'i AI-Muwaqqi, built in Cairo, about 1350.

Fig. 48. Section through the Q'a of Muhib Ad-Dmin Ash-Shf'i Al-Muwaqqi, showing the malqaf and central location of the q'a.

Fig. 49. Section through the Q'a of Muhib Ad-Din Ash-Shf'i Al-Muwaqqi, showing how the mulqaf and wind-escape produce internal air movement. Arrows indicate the direction of airflow; arrow length corresponds to airspeed. The measurements were made on 2 April 1973 by scholars from the Architectural Association School of Architecture in London. All wind and airspeeds are given in meters per second.

Fig. 50. Malqaf of the Pharaonic house of Neb-Amun, from a painting on his tomb' Nineteenth Dynasty (c. 1300 B.C.).

Fig. 51. Workshop at the University of Science and Technology, Kumasi , Ghana, showing how Y-beams route airflow through the work area.

Fig. 53. Airflow pattern and pressure changes for a building placed in the wind.

Fig. 55. Floor plans and section of a home with a basement living area in Al-Kufa, Iraq, with a narrow malqaf and ceiling vents for ventilation.

Fig. 56. Malqaf with wetted baffles and a wind-escape. Design by Hassan Fathy. (p 1)

Fig. 56. Malqaf with wetted baffles and a wind-escape. Design by Hassan Fathy. (p 2)

Malqaf with wetted baffles and a wind-escape. Design by Hassan Fathy. (p 3)

Fig. 58. (top right) Sections and elevations of houses planned for the village of Bans, AlKhrga Oasis, Egypt, showing the malqaf applied on a neighborhood scale. Design by Hassan Fathy.

Fig. 59. (bottom right) Sections and elevations of a marketplace planned for the village of Bris, Al-Khrga Oasis, Egypt, showing application of the malqaf. Design by Hassan Fathy.

Fig. 60. Section of a modern villa designed for Saudi Arabia showing the use of a malqaf This section is facing in the opposite direction from that shown in fig. 31. The 13-m (43-ft) high double q a structure can be seen from the drawing. Design by Hassan Fathy.

Fig. 61. Elevation of the Fu'ad Riyad house built in the 1960s in Cairo, showing the malqaf entrance which is just below the dome. The tower is a pigeon roost.

Fig. 62. Sections of the Fu'ad Riyad house showing the malqaf.

Fig. 63. Roof plan of the Fu'ad Riyad house in Cairo, showing the malqaf, dome, vaults, and fountain, with sectional plan details.

Fig. 66. Plan and section of the bdgir in figs. 64 and 65.

Fig. 69. Plan of the Al-Fustt house, Cairo, showing the courtyard.

Fig. 70. Plan of Dar Lajimi, a courtyard house, Tunis.

Fig. 71. Plan of the Al-Ukhaidar Palace in Iraq, showing a courtyard with a loggia.

Fig. 73. (opposite) Plan of the As-Suhaymi house at Darb Al-Asfr, Cairo, showing the courtyard, takhtabush, and back garden.

Fig. 74. Plan of the ground floor of the Q 'a of Muhib Ad-Din Ash-Shf 'i AlMuwaqqi at Darb Al-Usta, Cairo, showing two courtyards with a takhtabush betweenthem.

Fig. 75. Plan of a part of the village of Bris, Al-Khrga Oasis, Egypt, showing a takhtabush between a shaded and an exposed courtyard. Design by Hassan Fathy

Fig.77. (above) Part of the town plan of Tunis,near Dar Lajimi, showing courtyards

Fig. 78. Part of the town plan of Damascus, with courtyards unmarked.

Fig. 79. Part of the town plan of Washington, D.C., showing the gridiron pattern.

(a) Plan of the Al-Fustt house, Cairo, showing a fountain in the courtyard;

Fig. 81. (b) plan of the q 'a of AlHaramain in Saudi Arabia, showing a fountain in the dur-q'a


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