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Natural Energy and Vernacular Architecture
Principles and Examples with Reference to Hot Arid Climates
Table of contents (195 p.)
edited by Walter Shearer
Abd-el-rahman Ahmed Sultan
The United Nations University
The University of Chicago Press
Chicago and London
HASSAN FATHY, an Egyptian architect, has taught on the Faculty of Fine Arts in Cairo and served as head of its architectural section. He has received the Union of International Architects Gold Medal, the Egyptian Government's National Prize for Arts and Letters, and the Aga Kahn Award for Architecture. He is the author of Architecture for the Poor, also published by the University of Chicago Press.
The author and the United Nations University would like to thank Dr. Abd-el-rahman Ahmed Sultan for kindly allowing the reproduction of his copyrighted photographs appearing as figures 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, and 72 as well as for the preparation of all the drawings used in the text with the exception of figures 51 and 79. The unit used on the scales of all drawings is the meter.
The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637
The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London
© 1986 by Hassan Fathy
All rights reserved. Published 1986
Printed in the United States of America
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Natural energy and vernacular architecture.
1. Architecture, Domestic-Arid regions Arab countries.
2. Vernacular architecture-Environmental aspects-Arab countries.
3. Architecture and energy conservation-Arab countries.
I. Shearer, Walter.
II. Sultan, 'Abd al-Rahman.
ISBN 0-226-23918-7 (pbk.)
Part 1. Man, natural environment, and architecture
1. Environment and architecture
Effect of climate on architectural form
Conscious modification of the microclimate
Trends in international architecture
2. Architectural thermodynamics and human comfort in hot climates
Thermal conduction and resistance
Cooling by evaporation
Dynamic thermal equilibrium
Heat-regulating mechanisms of the human body
Measurement of conditions of human comfort
Part 2. Natural energy and vernacular architecture
3. Architecture and comfort
Architectural design for a comfortable microclimate
4. The sun factor
5. The wind factor in air movement
Air movement by pressure differential
6. The sun factor in air movement
Air movement by convection
The courtyard house
Traditional city layout and climate
7. The humidity factor
Appendix One: Data on saturated water vapor
Appendix Two: Thermal comfort sensation scales
Appendix Three: Data on thermal transmittance
Appendix Four: Angles of declination and altitude for Cairo, Egypt
Glossary: Architectural terminology of the region
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