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6 Prospects for sustainable management

We suggest that, in San Rafael, management may be an inappropriate term for describing ribereno use of monte alto resources at present. In contrast, successional forests of purmas appear to support a higher degree of human manipulation. Purmas, however, are by no means stable islands of forest. They are part of a cycle of swidden agriculture. The agricultural phases of that cycle provide the principal source of income from the land of ribereños in San Rafael. Elsewhere, forest and fallow products may be as important (Padoch, 1987).

Table 10.5 Fruit species collected from monte alto in San Rafael, Iquitos , July 1989

No. Common name Scientific name Family
1 Huicungo Astrocarium huicungo Palmae
2 Shimbillo blanco Inga sp. Mimosaceae
3 Cacao Theabroma cacao Sterculiaceae
4 Zapotillo Quararibea wittii Bombacaceae
5 Ubos Spondias mombin Anacardiaceae
6 Misho chaqui Perebea sp. Moraceae
7 Conta   Palmae
8 Pairajo shimbillo Inga corymbifera Mimosaceae
9 Poroto shimbillo Inga canaminensis Mimosaceae
10 Metohuayo Loretoa sp. Rubiaceae
11 Cacahuillo Theobroma subincanum Sterculiaceae
12 Huiracaspi Carpotroche grandiflora Flacourtaceae
13 Ungurahui Jessenia bataua Palmae
14 Charichuelo Rheedia acuminata Clusiaceae
15 Pelejo shimbillo Peltogyne densiflora Caesalpinaceae
16 Camucamu de altura Calyptranthes simulata Myrtaceae
17 Chicle huayo Lacnellea aculeata Apocynaceae
18 Shapajilla Sheelea sp. Palmae
19 Charapilla Coumarouna charapilla Papilionaceae
20 Shapaja Sheelea cephalotes Palmae
21 Vino huayo Cocoloba sp. Polygonaceae

When considering community use of forest resources in monte alto and purmas, people's attitudes toward the forest must be taken into account. Local people continue to believe that monte alto resources are inexhaustible, despite their awareness of the decline in availability of a few valuable forest products. Padoch (1987) has identified a similar pattern of behaviour in the Ucayali region.

The principal goal of the San Rafael communal reserve is to protect the forest from commercial timber extraction by companies from Iquitos. Secondarily, communal rules serve to regulate the extraction of high value species within the reserve by people from the community and neighbouring communities (Pinedo-Vasquez, 1988). Sustainable use of the resources of monte alto within the context of a communal reserve will require not only local knowledge, but also some technical input from outside the community. A forest management plan blending the two can promote not only the sustainable use of the forest resources but also the participation of local people in management decisions.

Table 10.6 Fruit Species collected from purmas in San Rafael, Iquitos, July 1989

No. Common name Scientific name Family IN/55
1 Pijuayo Bactris gasipaes Palmae 33
2 Guineo Musa paradisiaca Musaceae 32
3 Macambo Theobroma bicolor Sterculiaceae 11
4 Piña Ananas comosus Bromeliaceae 17
5 Guava Inga edulis Mimosaceae 23
6 Naranja Citrus reticulata Rutaceae 3
7 Cidra Citrus sp. Rutaceae 11
8 Caimito Pouteria caimito Sapotaceae 26
9 Toronja Citrus sp. Rutaceae 1
10 Zapote Matisia cordata Bombacaceae 1
11 Aguaje Mauritia flexuosa Palmae 1
12 Casho Anacardium occidentale Anacardiaceae 1
13 Pan del arbor Artocarpus altilis Bombacaceae 3
14 Sacha mangua Griia peraviana Lecythidaceae 1
15 Vacaba Oenocarpus mapora Palmae 1
16 Cana de azucar Saccharum officinarum Poaceae 3
17 Umarí Poraqueiba sericea Icacinaceae 5
18 Shimbillo Inga spp. Mimosaceae 2
19 Limón Citrus aurantifolia Rutaceae 1
20 Dale dale Calathea allouia Marantaceae 1
21 Cacao Theabroma cacao Sterculiaceae 1


We thank the community of San Rafael and the Federación Departamental de Campesinos y Nativos de Loreto. J. Chota-Inuma and M. Rios-Quiroz provided invaluable assistance in the field. Recent fieldwork has been supported by the Inter-American Foundation, the Tropical Forestry Program of the World Wildlife Fund/ Conservation Foundation, the Homeland Foundation, and the Tropical Resources Institute of Yale University.


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