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Industrial Metabolism:
• Restructuring for Sustainable Development •


Table of contents (390 p.)


Edited by Robert U. Ayres and Udo E. Simonis

The United Nations University, 1994

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

United Nations University Press
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UNUP-841
ISBN 92-808-0841-9
United Nations Sales No. E.93.III.A.3
03500 P


Contents

Note to the reader from the UNU
Acknowledgements
Introduction

Part 1: General implications

1. Industrial metabolism: Theory and policy

What is industrial metabolism?
The materials cycle
Measures of industrial metabolism
Policy implications of the industrial metabolism perspective
References

2. Ecosystem and the biosphere: Metaphors for human-induced material flows

Introduction
The ecosystem analogue
The environmental spheres analogue: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
Summary and conclusions
References

3. Industrial restructuring in industrial countries

Introduction
Identifying indicators of environmentally relevant structural change
Structural change as environmental relief
Environmentally relevant structural change: Empirical analysis
Typology of environmentally relevant structural change
Specific conclusions
General conclusions

4. Industrial restructuring in developing countries: The case of India

Industrial metabolism and sustainable development
Industry and sustainable development
Resource utilization
Energy efficiency: An overview
Energy use in Indian industry: A case-study
Conclusions
References

5. Evolution, sustainability, and industrial metabolism

Introduction
Technical progress and reductionism
The mechanical paradigm
The evolution of ecological structure
Discussion

Part 2: Case-studies

6. Industrial metabolism at the national level: A case-study on chromium and lead pollution in Sweden, 1880-1980

Introduction
The use of chromium and lead in Sweden
Calculation of emissions
The development of emissions over time
The emerging immission landscape
Conclusions
References

7. Industrial metabolism at the regional level: The Rhine Basin

Introduction
Geographic features of the Rhine basin
Methodology
The example of cadmium
Conclusions
References

8. Industrial metabolism at the regional and local level: A case-study on a Swiss region

Introduction
Methodology
Results
Conclusions
References

9. A historical reconstruction of carbon monoxide and methane emissions in the United States, 1880-1980

Introduction
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Methane (CH4)
References

10. Sulphur and nitrogen emission trends for the United States: An application of the materials flow approach

Introduction
Sulphur emissions
Nitrogen oxides emissions
Conclusion
References

11. Consumptive uses and losses of toxic heavy metals in the United States, 1880-1980

Introduction
Production-related heavy metal emissions
Emissions coefficients for production
Consumption-related heavy metal emissions
Emissions coefficient for consumption
Historical usage patterns
Conclusions
References

Appendix
Part 3: Further implications

12. The precaution principle in environmental management

Introduction
Precaution and "industrial metabolism"
Precaution: A case-study
History of the precaution principle
The precaution principle in international agreements
Precaution on the European stage
Precaution as a science-politics game
Precaution on the global stage
References

13. Transfer of clean(er) technologies to developing countries

Introduction
Sustainable development
Environmentally sound technology, clean(er) technology
Industrial metabolism
Knowledge and technology transfer
Endogenous capacity
Crucial elements of endogenous capacity-building
International cooperation for clean(er) technologies
Conclusions
Two case-studies
References
Bibliography

14. A plethora of paradigms: Outlining an information system on physical exchanges between the economy and nature

Introduction
Distinguishing between "harmful" and "harmless" characteristics of socio-economic metabolism with its natural environment
Outline of an information system for the metabolism of the socio-economic system with its natural environment
An empirical example for ESIs: Material balances and intensities for the Austrian economy
Purposive interventions into life processes (PILs)
Conclusions
References

Bibliography
Contributors


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