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1. Arab L, Wittier M, and Schettler G. European Food Composition Tables in Translation. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

2. CompuServe. Graphics interchange format, version 89a. Columbus, Oh., USA: CompuServe, Inc., 1990.

3. Coombs JH, Renear AH, and DeRose SJ. Markup systems and the future of scholarly text processing. Communications of the ACM, 30, 11 (November 1987).

4. Cubitt RE. Meta data: An experience of its uses and management. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Statistical Database Management, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, Calif., USA, 1983, pp. 280-286. Available through NTIS.

5. Dawson R. Klensin JC, and Yntema DB. The Consistent System. The American Statistician, 35, 3 (August 1980), pp. 169-176.

6. Efron B and Gong G. A leisurely look at the bootstrap, the jackknife, and cross-validation. The American Statistician, 37, 1 (February 1983), pp. 36-48.

7. Efron B and Morris C. Data analysis using Stein's Estimator and its generalization. J Amer Statistical Assn, 70, 350 (June 1975), pp. 311-319.

8. Fisher, RA. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. 14th edition. London: Collier-Macmillian, 1970.

9. Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Composition Tables for Use in East Asia. Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 1972.

10. Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Composition Tables for the Near East. Rome: UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 1982.

11. Greenfield H and Southgate DAT. Guidelines for the Production, Management, and Use of Food Composition Data. In preparation.

12. Heintze D, Klensin JC, and Rand WM. International Directory of Food Composition Tables. MIT, Cambridge, Mass., USA: INFOODS Secretariat, 2nd edition, September 1988.

13. Food and Drug Administration. Factored Food Vocabulary. As presented at the NCI Food Data System-Factored Food Vocabulary (FFV) Workshop, June 4-5, 1987.

14. Hoaglin DC, Mosteller F. and Tukey JW. Understanding Robust and Exploratory Data Analysis. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1983.

15. Howson C and Urbach P. Scientific Reasoning: The Bayesian Approach. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.

16. Klensin JC. A statistical database component of a data analysis and modelling system: Lessons from eight years of user experience. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Statistical Database Management, Lawrence Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, Calif., USA, 1983, pp. 280-286. Available through NTIS.

17. Klensin JC, Feskanich D, Lin V, Truswell AS, and Southgate DAT. Identification of Food Components for INFOODS Data Interchange. Tokyo: United Nations University, 1989.

18. Klensin JC and Romberg RM. Statistical data management requirements and the SQL standards: An evolving comparison. In Rafanelli M, Klensin JC, and Svensson P. Statistical and Scientific Database Management: Fourth International Working Conference. Lecture Notes in Computer Science No. 339. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1989.

19. Klensin JC. Regional center design and requirements. Paper presented at the INFOODS Policy Committee meeting, Budapest, November 1987. Abridged version available from INFOODS Secretariat as INFOODS IS/N7 (See reference 56).

20. Laboratory of Architecture and Planning. Consistent System: Janus Reference Manual. Cambridge, Mass., USA: MIT Laboratory of Architecture and Planning, 1980 (periodically revised).

21. Moran R. ed. SQL*Plus Report User's Guide, Version 1.0. Belmont, Calif., USA: Oracle Corporation, 1985.

22. Mosteller F and Tukey JW. Data Analysis and Regression. Reading, Mass., USA: Addison-Wesley, 1977.

23. Paul A and Southgate DAT. McCance & Widdowson's The Composition of Foods. London: HMSO, 1978.

24. Rand WM, Pennington JAT, Murphy SP, and Klensin JC. Compiling Data for Food Composition Data Bases. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 1992.

25. Rand WM and Pennington JAT. Nutrient variability and reliability: What to put in a food table?. Proceedings of the 16th National Nutrient Databank Conference, 1991. Ithaca, NY, USA: The CBORD Group, 1992.

26. Sachs J. SQL*Plus Reference Guide, Version 2.0. Belmont, Calif, USA: Oracle Corporation, 1986.

27. Shoshani A and Wong HKT. Statistical and scientific database issues. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, SE-11(10):1040-1047, October 1985.

28. Snedecor GW and Cochran WG. Statistical Methods. 7th edition. Ames, Iowa, USA: Iowa State University Press, 1980.

29. Stamen JP and Wallace R. Janus: A data management and analysis system for the behavioral sciences. Proceedings of the 1973 Annual Conference of the ACM, New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 1973.

30. Stewart KK. Editorial: Are they different. J Food Comp and Anal, 1, 2 (March 1988), p. 103.

31. Truswell AS, Bateson D, Madafiglio D, Pennington JAT, Rand WM, and Klensin JC. Facets for the description of foods: INFOODS guide to the aspects of foods which should be considered when describing them for a food composition database. INFOODS Working Paper, July 1987.

32. Truswell AS, Bateson D, Madafiglio D, Pennington JAT, Rand WM, and Klensin JC. INFOODS guidelines for describing foods: A systematic approach to describing foods to facilitate international exchange of food composition data. J Food Comp and Anal., 4, 1 (March 1991), pp. 18-38.

33. Truswell AS, Bateson D, and Madafiglio K. Manual to accompany a scheme for naming and describing foods in food composition tables and data bases. INFOODS Working Paper, November 1986.

34. Tukey, JW. Exploratory Data Analysis. Reading, Mass., USA: Addison-Wesley, 1977.

35. US Department of Agriculture. Composition of Foods: Raw, Processed, Prepared Agriculture Handbook No. 8, revised. Washington, DC: Science and Education Administration, US Department of Agriculture, 1976-1990.


These documents are, in most cases, equivalent to and redundant with the International Standards listed below. They can be ordered from the Order Department, American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd St., New York, NY 10018, USA. Telephone + 1 212 642 4900.

36. ANSI X3.42-1975: American National Standard for the Representation of Numeric Values in Character Strings for Information Interchange.

37. ANSI X3.30-1985: American National Standard for the Representation of Calendar Date and Ordinal Date for Information Interchange

38. ANSI X3.135-1989: American National Standard for Information Processing Systems-Database Language-SQL with Integrity Enhancement.


These documents are, in general, available from the sales offices of national standards organizations (the "member bodies") in each country. If a country does not have a member body, or the member body cannot be located, inquiries should be addressed to International Organization for Standardization, Central Secretariat, 1, rue de Varembé, Case postale 56, CH-1211 Genève 20, Switzerland.

39. ISO 639: International Standard-Code for the representation of names of languages.
40. ISO 646: International Standard-7-bit coded character set for information interchange. 1983
41. ISO 2014: International Recommendation-Representation of calendar date and ordinal date for information interchange.
42. ISO 2108: Documentation-International Standard Book Numbering (ISBN). 1978.
43. ISO 3166: International Standard-Codes for the representation of names of countries.
44. ISO 3297: Documentation-International Standard Serial Numbering (ISSN). 1986.
45. ISO 6093: International Standard-Information processing-Representation of numerical values in character strings for information interchange. 1985.
46. ISO 6523: Structure for the Identification of Organisations. 1984.
47. ISO 8859: International Standard 8 bit single byte coded graphic characters
48. ISO 8859-1: International Standard~bit single-byte coded character sets-Part 3: Latin alphabet no. 1. 1987.
49. ISO 8859-5: Draft International Standard-bit single-byte coded character sets-Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic alphabet.
50. ISO 8859-6: International Standard-bit single-byte coded character sets-Part 6: Latin/Arabic alphabet. 1987.
51. ISO 8859-7: International Standard-bit single-byte coded character sets-Part 7: Latin/Greek alphabet. 1987.
52. ISO 8859-8: International Standard-bit single-byte coded character sets-Part 8: Latin/Hebrew alphabet. 1988.
53. ISO 8879: International Standard-Information processing-Text and office systems-Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).
54. ISO 9075: International Standard Database Language SQL. 1987.


These working papers document the development history of the interchange system and its various components. This manual is intended to replace them, and contains information which is more complete and fully developed. The original working papers do, however, contain more discussion about the reasons for particular decisions than the present manual.

55. INFOODS/IS N6: Interchange standard: draft for review
56. INFOODS/IS N7: Regional food composition data centers/systems
57. INFOODS/IS N15: Initial root (structural) tag list
58. INFOODS/IS N16: Requirements for registering a tag
59. INFOODS/IS N17: Additional discussion of the interchange scheme
60. INFOODS/IS N20: Food description, automatic coding, and retrieval
61. INFOODS/IS N21: Introduction to the interchange scheme conversion programs
62. INFOODS/IS N22: Representation of trace, missing, and zero values
63. INFOODS/IS N30: Tags for local names and classifications
64. INFOODS/IS N31: Comments and response on IS N30
65. INFOODS/IS N32: A new structural tag category-derived measures
66. INFOODS/IS N35: Statistical tags
67. INFOODS/IS N36: Producing interchange files from database systems

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