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Agricultural Expansion and Pioneer Settlements in the Humid Tropics

Table of contents (314 p.)

Edited by Walther Manshard and William B. Morgan

Selected papers presented at a workshop held in Kuala Lumpur, 17-21 September 1985


© The United Nations University, 1988

The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations University.

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1. Introduction


2. Spontaneous and planned settlement in south-east Asia

Clearing and settlement in the highland-lowland transition zone of northern Thailand
The Philippines
Conclusion: government-sponsored versus spontaneous settlement

3. Types of spontaneous pioneer settlement in Thailand

The causes of pioneer settlement
Expansion of farm land by local peasants within their village territory: the example of Nong Samong
Land colonization by peasants outside their village territory: the example of km 79
Colonization by medium- and large-scale farmers: the example of the Chon Buri Hinterland

4. The forest colonization process: case studies of two communities in north-east and south-east Thailand

The problem

Case study 1: history of settlement and in-migration

Settlers and occupation groups
Settlement pattern and the community

Case study 2: history of settlement

Settlers and occupation groups
Settlement pattern and the community


5. Differentiation and dynamics of land-use systems in a mountain-valley environment: a area, case study of new colonization areas in the Upper Mae Nam Pa Sak catchment Thailand

Development of land-use systems

Agricultural production conditions in the study area
Land clearance and emergence of present land-use systems
Problems and potential avenues of development of present land use

Land-use development in the Scarp-Valley zone

The traditional land-use system
Clearance of the Scarp Zone and intensification of farming in the Valley Zone



6. Man in the mangrove forest: a socio-economic case study in Southern Thailand


7. The Jengka Triangle: a report on research in progress

Evaluating the Jengka Triangle experience
The urban subsystem in the Jengka area
Preliminary observations
The second-generation "problem"

8. Energy use in West Malaysian rural villages, with special reference to Felda villages

Description of the selected villages
Comparison of the economic energy situation in the villages
Household budget allotment for energy costs
Energy supply and the use of alternative energy sources

9. Are Malaysian land settlers (new) peasants? Antropological observation of a nascent Community

Presentation of a Felda scheme
Defining the peasantry
Felda settlers versus malay peasants
Emergence of a new community

10. Resource use of frontiers and pioneer settlement in southern Sumatra

Sumatra's role in pioneer settlement in Indonesia
Pioneer settlement in the Mountain Zone
Pioneer settlement in the peneplains
Pioneer settlement in the swamps of the eastern lowlands

11. Ex-military settlements in Indonesia and the emergence of social differentiation in frontier areas

Initial efforts
Early settlement pattern
The Sapta Marga concept applied
Towards integration
Concluding remarks

12. A survey of government pioneer land settlement programmes in south-east Asia

Objectives of land settlement programmes
Organization of land settlement agencies
Implementation concepts and practices
Intake of settlers
Concluding remarks

13. Un exemple de colonisation des terres marginales: le cas du nord-est Ivoirien

Le paysage naturel: realités et mythes
Le paysage humain et social
Problematique économique et la question des terres
Les initiatives publiques et les nouvelles conditions du développement dans le nord-est
Le projet de développement intégré du nord-est
Bibliographie sommaire

14. The land Tenure and agrarian system in the new cocoa frontier of Ghana: Wassa Akropong case study

Evolution of the customary tenure system
The migrant farmer and land access
Size of holdings
Land use
Farmers perception of tenure problems

15. Colonization in Central America

Objectives and dangers of colonization in the humid tropics
Ecological regions Of Central America
The process of colonization In Central America
Country situations
The process of land conversion
Research and implementation needs

16. Organized settlement on the Amazon frontier: The Caquetá project in Colombia

The project
Project characteristics
Target population
Development or stabilizing strategy
The environmental issue in Colombia
Material accomplishments of Phase II
Project investment and cost
Socio-political events in the project area
Stability of the production model
Environmental effects
Environmental costs
Frontier stabilization alternatives
Frontier management technology

17. The colonization and occupation of Brazilian Amazonia

Recent economic development and governmental policies regarding the Amazon
Amazonian colonization from 1964 to the present
The border and social conflicts

Participants and contributors

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