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Akin. Rabibhadana. 1969. The Organization of Thai Society in the Earty Bangkok Period 1782-1873. Cornell Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 74. Ithaca, New York, USA.

Allan. C.W. 1916. "Teak Taungya Plantations in the Henzada-Maubin Division.'' The Indian Forester, 42: 533 - 537.

Allan. William. 1965. The African Husbandman. Barnes a Noble, New York.

Allsop, F. 1949. "Shifting Cultivation in Burma: Its Practice, Effects, and Control, and Its Use to make Forest Plantations." In Proceedings of the Seventh Pacific Science Congress. 6: 277-285. Whitcombe and Tombs, Ltd., Auckland and Christchurch, New Zealand.

Bennett, John W. 1976. ''Anticipation, Adaptation, and the Concept of Culture in Anthropology." Science, 192 (4242): 847-853.

Bernatzik, Hugo Adolf. 1947. Akha and Meo. Problems of Applied Ethnology in the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. 2 vols. Commission Press, Wagnerian University Printing Shop. Innsbruck, Austria. (Translated from German by US Army. Copies available at Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, and Thailand information Centre, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok.)

Binney, George A. 1968. The Social and Economic Organization of Two White Meo Communities in Northern Thailand. Advanced Research Projects Agency Publication ARPA-T10, Washington, D.C., USA.

Boserup, Ester. 1965. The Conditions of Agricultural Growth; The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure. Aldine, Chicago.

Bradley, David. 1975. "Lahu Dialects and Proto-loloish." Ph.D. dissertation. London University.

Brookfield, H.C. 1972. "Intensification and Disintensification in Pacific Agriculture-A Theoretical Approach." Pacific Viewpoint, 13 (1): 30-48.

Burton, C.L. 1970. "Diseases of Tropical Vegetables on the Chicago Market." Tropical Agriculture. Trinidad, 47 (4): 303-31 3.

Carter, William E.1969. New Lands and Old Traditions: Kekchi Cultivators in the Guatemalan Lowlands. Latin American Monographs, 2nd series, No. 6. University of Florida Press, Gainsville, Florida, USA.

Chapman. E.C. 1967. ''An Appraisal of Recent Agricultural Changes in the Northern Valleys of Thailand." 6th Academic Conference, Agricultural Economics Society of Thailand. Kasetsart University, Bangkok (mimeographed).

—. 1970. Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in the Lowlands of Northern Thailand. In International Seminar on Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok.

—. 1973. ''Villagers as Clients A Study of Land Development in Northern Thailand." In Robert Ho and E.C. Chapman, eds.. Studies of Contemporary Thailand. Research School of Pacific Studies. Department of Human Geography Publication HG/8. Australian National University, Canberra.

Chindarsi, Nusit, and Tawee Raksachon. 1976. "The Profitability of Opium for the Grower." Report to the Royal Thai Government and United Nations Programme for Drug Abuse Control Project for Crop Replacement and Community Development, Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Ciriacy-Wantrup, Siegfried von. 1952. Resource Conservation. Economics and Policies. University of California Press. Berkeley, California. USA.

Clarke, William C.1976. "Maintenance of Agriculture and Human Habitats within the Tropical Forest Ecosystem." Human Ecology, 4 (3): 247-259.

Conklin, Harold C. 1957. "A Report on an Integral System of Shifting Cultivation in the Philippines." Hanunóo Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome

—.1957a. "Shifting Cultivation and Succession to Grassland Climax." Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress. 7: 60-62.

Conway, Gordon, and Jeff Romm. 1973. Ecology and Resource Development in Southeast Asia. Office for Southeast Asia, The Ford Foundation, Bangkok.

Cowgill, Ursula M. 1961. "Soil Fertility and the Ancient Maya.'' Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 42: 1-56.

Dasmann, Raymond F., John P. Milton, and Peter H. Freeman. 1973. Ecological Principles for Economic Development. John Wiley & Sons,'Ltd., London.

Datoo, Bashir A. 1976. "Relationship between Population Density and Agricultural Systems in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania." Journal of Tropical Geography, 42: 1 -12.

De Alcantara, Cynthia Hewitt. 1973-1974. "The 'Green Revolution as History: The Mexican Experience." Development and Change. 5 (2): 25 - 44.

de Coene, R. 1956.''Agricultural Settlement Schemes in the Belgian Congo. " Tropical Agriculture, 33 (1).

Dessaint, Alain Yvon. 1972.''Economic Organization of the Lisu of the Thai Highlands." Ph.D. dissertation (Anthropology), University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

de Schlippe, Pierre. 1955. Shifting Cultivation in Africa: The Zande System of Agriculture. Routledge and Kesan Paul, London.

Dickinson, J.C. 1972. "Alternatives to Monoculture in the Humid Tropics of Latin America." The Professional Geographer, 24 (3): 217-222.

Dobby, E.H.G. 1950. South-East Asia. University of London Press, London (2nd ed. 1954).

Donner, Wolf. 1978. The Five Faces of Thailand, An Economic Geography. A publication of the Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg. C. Hurst and Company, London.

Douglas, James Sholto. 1973. "Forest-Farming: An Ecological Approach to Increase Nature's Food Productivity.''Impact of Science on Society, 23 (2): 117-332.

Eckholm, E.P. 1976. Losing Ground. World Watch Institute and UN Environment Programme. W.W. Norton and Co., New York.

Ehrlich, Paul R., et al. 1977. Ecoscience. Population, Resources. Environment. W. H. Freeman & Co. San Francisco, California, USA.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1956. Tree Planting Practices in Tropical Africa. Forestry Development Paper No. 8. Rome.

—. 1957. Tree Planting Practices in Tropical Asia. Forestry Development Paper No. 11. Rome.

Farnworth, Edward G., and Frank B. Golley, eds. 1973. Fragile Ecosystems. Report of the Institute of Ecology (TIE). Springer-Verlag, New York.

Freeman, Derek. 1970. Report on the Iban. London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology No. 41. Humanities Press, inc., New York.

Galbraith, John Kenneth. 1977. The Age of Uncertainty. Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston.

Geddes, William R. 1970. ''Opium and the Miao: A Study in Ecological Adjustment." Oceania, 41 (1): 1-11.

—. 1976. Migrants of the Mountains. The Cultural Ecology of the Blue Miao (Hmong Njua) of Thailand. Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Geertz, Clifford. 1963. Agricultural Involution-The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. University of California Press (for the Association of Asian Studies), Berkeley, California, U.S.A.

Gomez-Pompa, A., C. Vazquez-Yanes, and S. Guevara. 1972. "The Tropical Rain Forest: A Nonrenewable Resource." Science, 177 (4051): 762-765.

Gordon W.A. 1956. "Agriculture and Forestry." Tropical Agriculture, 33 (3): 171-175.

Gourou, Pierre. 1949. "The Development of Upland Areas in China '' In The Development of Upland Areas in the Far East. 1: 1 24. International Secretariat, institute of Pacific Relations, New York.

—. 1956. ''The Quality of Land-Use of Tropical Cultivators." In W.L. Thomas, Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Graham. W.A.1924. Siam. A. Moring, London.

Grandstaff, Terry B. 1976. ''Swidden Society in North Thailand: A Diachronic Perspective Emphasizing Resource Relationships." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

—. 1979, ''The Hmong, Opium. and the Haw: Speculations on the Origin of the Association." Journal of the Siam Society. 76 (2).

Greenland, D.J. 1975. "Bringing the Green Revolution to the Shifting Cultivator. Science, 190 (4217): 841 - 844.

Hallet, Holt S. 1890. A Thousand Miles on An Elephant in the Shan States. William Blackwood and Sons. London.

Hamilton, James W. 1976. Pwo Karen at the Edge of Mountain and Plain. Ed., Robert F. Spencer. American Ethnological Society, Monograph 60. West Publishing Co., Los Angeles.

Hanks, Lucien M. 1972. Rice and Man-Agricultural Ecology in Southeast Asia. Aldine, New York.

Harris, D.R. 1971. "The Ecology of Swidden Cultivation in the Upper Orinoco Rain Forest, Venezuela.'' Geographical Review. 61: 475-495.

Hearn, Robert M. 1974. Thai Government Programs in Refugee Relocation and Resettlement in Northern Thailand. Thailand Books, Anburn, New York.

Hinton, Peter. 1969. The Pwo Karen of Northern Thailand: A Preliminary Report, Report C. Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

—. 1970. "Swidden Cultivation among the Pwo Karen of Northern Thailand-Present Practices and Future Prospects." In International Seminar on Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Royal Thai Government, Bangkok.

—. 1973. "Population Dynamics and Dispersal Trends among the Karen of Northern Thailand." In Robert Ho and E.C. Chapman. eds., Studies of Contemporary Thailand, Department of Human Geography Publication HO/8. Australian National University, Canberra.

—. 1975. "A Summary of Peter Hinton's Thesis 'Karen Subsistence.'" Presented to the Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand (mimeographed).

—. 1978. "Declining Productivity among Sedentary Swidden Cultivators: The Case of the Pwo Karen." In Kunstadter et al. (1978).

Holdridge, Leslie Rensselaer. 1959. "Ecological Indications of the Need for a New Approach to Tropical Land Use." Economic Botany, 13 (4): 271-280.

Igbozurike, M.U. 1971. "Ecological Balance in Tropical Agriculture.'' Geographical Review, 61: 519 524.

Iijima, Shigeru. 1970.''Socio-cultural Change among the Shifting Cultivators through the Introduction of Wet Rice Culture-A Case Study of the Karens in Northern Thailand.'' Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, Kyoto University, No. 97. Agricultural Economics Series No. 3. Kyoto, Japan.

Ingold, Tim. 1978.''The Rationalization of Reindeer Management among Finnish Lapps." Development and Change, 9 (1): 103 - 132.

Ingram, James C. 1971. Economic Change in Thailand, 1850-1970. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California, USA.

IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 1975. Major Research in Upland Rice. Los Baños, Philippines.

Janzen, Daniel H.1973.''Tropical Agroecosystems." Science. 182: 1212 - 1219.

Jones, Steve. 1978. "Tribal Underdevelopment in India." Development and Change, 9 (1): 41 -70.

Jones, William O. 1965. "Environment. Technical Knowledge. and Economic Development.'' In David Brokensha, ed., Ecology and Economic Development in Tropical Africa, Institute of International Studies, University of California, Research Series No. 9. Berkeley, California, USA.

Judd, Laurence C. 1964. Dry Rice Agriculture in Northern Thailand. Cornell Southeast Asia Program Data Paper No. 52. Ithaca, New York, USA.

Katzman. Martin T. 1976. "Paradoxes of Amazonian Development in a 'Resource-Starved' World.'' The Journal of Developing Areas, 10 (4): 445-449.

Keen, F.G.B.1972. Upland Tenure and Land Use in North Thailand SEATO. Bangkok.

Kellman, M.C. 1969. "Some Environmental Components of Shifting Cultivation in Upland Mindanao." Journal of Tropical Geography, 28: 40-56.

Kerdphol, Saiyud. 1976. "Government Policy Is Leading to Disaster in the Hills.'' Bangkok Post Sunday Magazine, 4 January: 9-10.

Kio, P.R. 1.972. "Shifting Cultivation and Multiple Use of Forest Land in Nigeria.'' Commonwealth Forestry Review, 51 (2): 144 - 148.

Koppel, Bruce. 1978. "Technology Assessment and Research Management." SEARCA Bulletin, No. 4.

Kowal, Norman Edward. 1966.''Shifting Cultivation, Fire, and Pine Forest in the Cordillera, Central Luzon, Philippines." Ecological Monographs, 36 (4).

Kuchler, A.W., and John O. Sawyer. 1967. ''A Study of the Vegetation near Chiengmai, Thailand.'' Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 70 (3): 281 -348.

Kunstadter, Peter.1967. "The Lua' (Lawa) and Skaw Karen of Maehongson Province, Northwestern Thailand.'' In Peter Kunstadter, ea., Southeast Asian Tribes. Minorities, and Nations. 2 vols. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New York, USA.

—. 1970, "Subsistence Agricultural Economics of Lua' and Karen Hill Farmers of Mae Sariang District, Northwestern Thailand.'' In International Seminar on Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok.

—. 1978. "Subsistence Agricultural Economies of Lua' and Karen Hill Farmers, Mae Sariang District, Northwest Thailand." In Kunstadter et al. (1978).

Kunstadter, Peter, and E.C. Chapman. 1970, "Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand." In International Seminar on Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok.

—. 1978. ''Problems of Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand." In Kunstadter et al. (1978).

Kunstadter, Peter, et al., eds. 1978. Farmers in the Forest. Economic Development and Marginal Agriculture in Northern Thailand. University Press of Hawaii, for the East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Lal, R. 1975. Role of Mulching Techniques in Tropical Soil and Water Managment. IITA Technical Bulletin 1. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Leach, Edmund R. 1954. Political Systems of Highland Burma. Beacon Press, Boston.

—. 1958. "Some Economic Advantages of Shifting Cultivation," Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress, 7: 64-66.

LeBar, Frank M., et al. 1964. Ethnic Groups of Main/and Southeast Asia. Human Relations Area Files Press, New Haven, Conn., USA.

Manshard, Walther. 1974. Tropical Agriculture. A Geographical Introduction and Appraisal. Longman Group Limited, London.

Marlowe, David H. 1969. "Upland-Lowland Relationships: The Case of the Skaw Karen of Central Upland Western Chiang Mai.'' In Peter Hinton, ed., Tribesmen and Peasants in Northern Thailand. Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Marshall. Harry I. 1922. ''The Karen People of Burma-A Study in Anthropology and Ethnology.'' Ohio State University Bulletin, 26 (13).

McKinnon, John. 1977. "Shifting Cultivation: Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf ?'' Paper delivered at 77th seminar in series Agriculture in Northern Thailand, Chiang Mai University. Chiang Mail Thailand (mimeographed).

Mickey, Margaret P. 1947. "The Cowrie Shell Miao of Kweichow." Peabody Museum Papers, 32 (1)

Miles, Douglas. 1967. "A Note on Shifting Cultivation and Settlement." Journal of the Siam Society. 55 (part 1).

Miracle, Marvin P. 1967. Agriculture in the Congo Basin. Tradition and Change in African Rural Economies. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Nakano, Kazutaka. 1978. "An Ecological Study of Swidden Agriculture at a Village in Northern Thailand." Tonan Ajia Kenkyu, 16 (3): 411-446.

Nisbet, John. 1901. Burma under British Rule-and Before. 2 vols. Archibald Constable, London.

Nye, P.H., and D.J. Greenland. 1960. The Sol under Shifting Cultivation. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau, Farnham Royal, Bucks., United Kingdom.

Odum. Howard T. 1971. Environment. Power, and Society. Wiley-Interscience, New York.

Ogawa, Husato, et al. 1961. "A Preliminary Survey on the Vegetation of Thailand." Nature and Life in Southeast Asia, 1: 21-157.

Ophuls, William, 1977. Ecology and the Politics of Scarcity. W.H. Freeman and Company, California, USA.

Pelzer, K.J. 1948. Pioneer Settlement in the Asiatic Tropics. American Geographical Society Special Publication No. 29. New York.

—. 1957. "Agriculture in the Humid Tropics.'' Proceedings of the Ninth Pacific Science Congress. Bangkok, 2: 124-143.

Pendieton, Robert L. 1939. "Some Interrelations between Agriculture and Forestry Particularly in Thailand." Journal of the Thailand Research Society. Natural History Supplement. 12 (1): 33 - 52.

Pflueguer, O.W. 1930. "The 'Kaingin' Problem in the Philippines and a Possible Method of Control." Journal of Forestry, 28 (1): 66 - 71.

President's Science Advisory Committee on World Food Production. 1967. The World Food Problem. The White House, Washington. D.C., USA.

Race, Jeffrey. 1974. 'The War in Northern Thailand." Modern Asian Studies, 8 (1): 85-112.

Reed, Robert R.1965. "Swidden in Southeast Asia." Lipunan (Institute of Asian Studies, University of the Philippines, Quezon City), 1 (1): 24 - 52.

Reining, Priscilla Copeland. 1965. "Land Resources of the Haya." in David Brokensha, ea., Ecology and Economic Development in Tropical Africa. Institute of International Studies, University of California. Research Series, No. 9. Berkeley, California, USA.

Riney, Thane. 1972. "Experiments with the Use of Case Histories in an Ecology Seminar." In M. Taghi Farvar and John P. Milton, eds.. The Careless Technology. Natural History Press, Garden City, New York, USA.

Ruddle, Kenneth, and Ray Chesterfield. 1977. Education for Traditional Food Procurement in the Orinoco Delto. Ibero-Americana 53. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. USA.

—. 1978. ''Traditional Skill Training and Labor in Rural Societies." Journal of Developing Areas, 12 (4): 389 - 398.

Ruddle, Kenneth, and Terry B. Grandstaff. 1977. Renewable Resources: Planning and Development Project Case Study Guidelines. East-West Center, Technology and Development Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

—. 1978. "The International Potential of Traditional Resource Systems in Marginal Areas.'' Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 11 (2): 119-1 31.

Ruthenberg, Hans. 1971. Farming Systems in the Tropics Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Sabhasri. Sanga. 1970. "Effect of Forest Fallow Cultivation on Forest and Soil Productivity." In International Seminar on Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok.

Schultz, Arnold M. 1969. "The Ecosystem as a Conceptual Tool in the Management of Natural Resources.'' In S.V. Ciriacy-Wantrup and James J. Parsons, eds., Natural Resources: Quality and Quantity. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. USA.

Seavoy, Ronald E. 1973. "The Shading Cycle in Shining Cultivation." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 63 (4): 522-528.

—. 1973. "The Transition to Continuous Rice Cultivation in Kalimantan." Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 63: 21 8-225.

—. 1975. "The Origin of Tropical Grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia." Journal of Tropical Geography, 40: 48-52.

Smitinand, T. 1962. Types of Forest in Thailand. Royal Forest Department Publication No. R44. Bangkok.

Spencer, J.E. 1966. Shifting Cultivation in Southeast Asia. University of California Publications in Geography, vol. 19.

Spoehr. Alexander.1956. "Cultural Differences in the Interpretation of Natural Resources." In William L. Thomas, Jr., ea., Man's Role in Changing the Face or the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Stebbing, E.P. 1922. The Forests of India. Lane, London.

Swift, Jeremy. 1978. "Marginal Peoples at the Modern Frontier in Asia and the Arctic." Development and Change, 9 (1): 3-19.

TAHAP (Thai-Australian Highland Agricultural Project). 1979. Fourth Report. Chiang Mai, Thailand, and Canberra, Australia.

TRC (Tribal Research Centre). 1974.''Tribal Population Summary in Thailand." Chiang Mai, Thailand (mimeographed).

—. 1975. ''Report on the Socio-Economic Survey of the Upper Mae Tien Subcatchment." Chiang Mai, Thailand (mimeographed ).

Trenbath B.R. 1974. "Biomass Productivity of Mixtures.'' Advances in Agronomy, 26: 177-210.

UNPDAC (United Nations Programme for Drug Abuse Control). 1973-1979. Thailand Report Series, Nos. 1 -14. Narcotics Division, United Nations, Geneva.

USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). 1979. "Project Preparation Report for the Upper Mae La Noi Agricultural Extension Project to the United States Department of Agriculture." Ed., Sangwan Onpow and Peter Hoarp. Chiang Mai, Thailand (mimeographed).

Van Dyne, George M., ed. 1969. The Ecosystem Concept in Natural Resource Management. Academia Press, New York.

Walker, Anthony R. 1970. "Lahu Nyi (Red Lahu) Village Society and Economy in North Thailand." Tribal Research Centre, Chiang Mai, Thailand (mimeographed ).

Walker, Anthony R., ed. 1975. Farmers in the Hills: Up/and Peoples of North Thailand Universiti Sains Malaysia. Penang, Malaysia.

Watt, Kenneth E.F. 1968. Ecology and Resource Management. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Watters, R.F. 1960. "The Nature of Shifting Cultivation.'' Pacific Viewpoint, 1: 59-99.

—. 1960a. ''Some Forms of Shifting Cultivation in the South West Pacific. Journal of Tropical Geography. 14: 35-50.

—. 1971. Shifting Cultivation in Latin America, FAO Forestry Development Paper No. 17. Rome.

Wilkinson, G.E. 1975. "Canopy Characteristics of Maize and the Effect on Soil Erosion in Western Nigeria.'' Tropical Agriculture 52 (4).

Woodwell, G.M. 1974. "Success. Succession, and Adam Smith." BioScience, 24: 81 - 87.

Wrigley, Gordon.1969. Tropical Agriculture: The Development Production. Faber and Faber, London.

Zinke. Paul J. et al. 1970. "Soil Fertility Aspects of the Lua Forest Fallow System of Shifting Cultivation. In International Seminar on Shifting Cultivation and Economic Development in Northern Thailand. Land Development Department, Bangkok.

Other UNU Publications

Development Projects in the Sudan: An Analysis of Their Reports with Implications for Research and Training in Arid Land Management by Heinz-Ulrich Thimm

An analysis of the successes and failures of eight development projects. In describing the conflicts between public and private interests, nomads and sedentary farmers, animals and crops, it illustrates the difficulties in planning and executing arid land development schemes. It also examines the practical implications of the study and suggests topics for further research.

NRTS-1/UNUP-42 ISBN 91-808-0042-6 50 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper-bound. US$3.00

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A compilation of papers focused particularly on understanding the causes and effects of management strategies to control and, if possible. reverse desertification. For countries with substantial dryland areas the assessment of existing knowledge and the training of personnel in its application are prerequisites of development.

NRTS-2/UNUP-44 ISBN 92-808-0044-2 97 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper-bound. US$5.00

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Includes eight papers on the physical, social, and economic relationships between highland and lowland and on the problems posed by the change from shifting cultivation to a more settled type of agriculture. Additional reports analyse research and training needs.

NRTS-3/UNUP-77 ISBN 92-808-0077-9 114 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper-bound. US$10.00

Proceedings of the Jakarta Workshop on Coastal Resources Management

Edited by C.F. Bird and A. Soegiarto

The collected papers that comprise these proceedings were presented at the September 1979 workshop which inaugurated the UNU training course on coastal resource management. Relating primarily to the north coast of Java, they provide a multifaceted and up-to-date discussion of various coastal resources such as mangroves and marine fisheries, as well as more general papers on model development, humid tropical deltas. water-quality assessments and socio-economic studies. In most cases the authors analyse the implications of their work for coastal resources management.

NRTS-6/UNUP-130 ISBN 92-808-0130-3

106 pages, 21.4 x28 cm, paper-bound. US$9.00

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The papers presented are concerned with energy supply and demand, especially for fuelwood in rural areas. Concentrating primarily on southwestern Nigeria, they point out the urgent need for an understanding of the social and ecological implications of rising energy prices and fuelwood shortages even in the more humid, supposedly wood-rich zones of developing countries.

NRTS-4/UNUP-93 ISBN 92-808-0093-0 56 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper-bound. US$5.00

Social and Environmental Aspects of Desertification Edited by J.A. Mabbutt and A.W. Wilson

Contains a summary of the papers presented as a meeting of the International Geographical Union's Working Group on Desertification in and around Arid Lands. First results from the UN University s research projects and a summary of work accomplished under Unesco's auspices are included. The tremendous variation in causes and effects of desertification is clearly brought out, as is the value of adopting an interdisciplinary approach.

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This case study in the Philippines explains how a variety of scientific techniques were selected and used to analyse the spatial linkages within the Bicol River Basin, and to describe the inequalities in services, income, and opportunities within the region. Valuable insights are then provided as to how development projects, by incorporating such information, could be designed to discourage the massive urban migration and increasing inequality that consistently accompany development efforts.

NRTS-9/UNUP-166 ISBN 92-808-0166-x 45 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm, paper bound US$4.00

Bedouins, Wealth, and Change: A Study of Rural Development in the United Arab Emirates and the Sultanate of Oman by R. Cordes and F. Scholz

The sudden and unprecedented flow of wealth to the oil-producing countries in the Middle East has triggered an extremely rapid process of modernization which has had varying impact in the rural areas. By analysing in two contrasting case studies the extent to which these changes can take place without disrupting traditional systems of values, land-use, and social organization, the authors draw conclusions that have a much wider applicability.

NRTS-7/UNUP-14 ISBN 92-808-0143-0 65 pages, 21.4 x 28 cm. paper-bound. US$9.00

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Agro-Forestry Systems in Latin America:Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Turrialba. Costa Rica. March 1979

As a form of land-use agro-forestry has tremendous possibilities that have yet to be studied or explored in depth. This publication, the proceedings of a workshop jointly sponsored by the United Nations University and the Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Costa Rica, presents over thirty scientific papers on the integration of trees with field crops and/or animals, primarily in Latin America: both small-scale traditional systems and large industrial estates. Topics covered include a classification of Agro-forestry systems, experimental design, economics, land rehabilitation, erosion, and the dissemination of techniques. Available from the publisher, CATIE (Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza). Turrialba, Costa Rica.


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