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1. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Rural Development Sector Policy Paper (Washington: World Bank, 1975).
2. International Labour Office, Poverty and Landlessness in Rural Asia (Geneva: I LO, 1977), p. 7.
3. IBRD, op. cit., p, 22.
4. The argument is made in greater detail by Kenneth Ruddle and Terry B. Grandstaff, "The International Potential of Traditional Resource Systems in Marginal Areas," Technologica/ Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 11 (1978), pp. 119-131.
5. IBRD, World Development Report [Washington: World Bank, 1978), p. 38.
6. ILO, op. cit., p. 14.
7. See Dennis A. Rondinelli and Kenneth Ruddle, "Local Organization for Integrated Rural Development: Implementing Equity Policy in Developing Countries," International Review of Administrative Sciences, vol. XLIII, no. 1 (January 1977), pp. 20-30,
8. ILO, op. cit., p. 15.
9. See Russell J. Cheetham and Edward K. Hawkins, The Philippines: Priorities and Prospects for Development (Washington: World Bank, 1976), p. 306.
10. The pattern is described in detail by Dennis A. Rondinelli and Kenneth Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development: A Spatial Policy for Equitable Growth (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1978).
11. See National Economic and Development Authority, Republic of the Philippines, Manila Bay Region in the Philippines (Manila: NEDA, 1973), Interim Report No. 4.
12. See Jeff Romm, Urbanization in Thai/and (New York: Ford Foundation, 1975), p. 7.
13. Cited in International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, A Framework for Regional Planning in Indonesia, vol, I I (Washington: World Bank, 1 974), pp. 33 - 34.
14. E.P. Javier, "Economic, Demographic and Political Determinants of the Regional Allocation of Government Infrastructure Expenditure in the Philippines," Journal of Phi/ippine Development, vol. III, no. 2 (1976), pp. 281 - 312.
15. Cited in E. B. Prantilia, "Industrialization Strategy and Growth Pole Approach to Regional Development Planning: The Philippine Experience," paper prepared for Seminar on Industrialization Strategies and the Growth Pole Approach to Regional Development, United Nations Centre for Regional Development, (Nagoya: UNCRD, 1975), pp. 19 - 22.
16, D.C. Rao, "Economic Growth and Equity in the Republic of Korea," World Development, vol. 6, no. 3 (March 1978), pp. 383 - 396; quote at p. 384.
17. Gustav Ranis, "Equity with Growth in Taiwan: How 'Special' is the 'Special Case'?" World Development, vol. 6, no. 3 (March 1978), pp. 397 - 410.
18. Rao, op. cit., pp. 388 - 389.
19. See E.A.J. Johnson, The Organization of Space in Developing Countries (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1970).
20. See Rondinelli and Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development, op. Cit., chapter 2.
21. Background of the policy is outlined in Dennis A. Rondinelli, "Administration of Integrated Rural Development: The Politics of Agrarian Reform in Developing Countries," World Politics, vol. XXXI, no. 3 (April 1979), pp. 389 - 416.
22. Ruddle and Grandstaff, op. cit., pp. 120 - 121.
23. US Agency for International Development, Office of Urban Development, "Urban Functions in Rural Development Project Paper" (Washington: USAID, 1976 mimeographed), p. 4.
24. Ibid., p. 4.
25. ibid., pp. 6 - 7.
26. The original report by Dennis A. Rondinelli and Kenneth Ruddle, Urban Functions in Rural Development: An Analysis of Integrated Spatial Developmont Policy "Washington: USAID, 1976) was later revised by the authors for publication (see Rondinelli and Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development, op. cit.)
27. This section describing the Bicol River Basin draws heavily from Dennis A. Rondinelli, Bicol River Basin Urban Functions in Rural Development Project: Summary and Evaluation, (Washington: USAID, 1978), processed; and Dennis A. Rondinelli, "Bicol River Basin Development Program: Prototype of an Equitable Growth Project," Modern Government/National Development, vol. 20, no. 1 (January- February 1979), pp. 47 - 56.
28. A third province, Sorsogon, was added to the Bicol River Basin planning area in 1978, but is not included in this description of the project,
29. Bicol River Basin Development Program, Ten Year Development Plan, 1978 - 1987 (Bares, Canaman, The Philippines: BRBDP, 1977),
32. See Rondinelli, Bicol River Basin Urban Functions in Rural Development Project, op. cit., pp. 31 - 35 for a detailed explanation of the organization of the project.
33. Detailed reports on these projects can be found in R.P. Misra and K.V. Sundaram, "Growth Foci as Instruments of Modernization in India," in A. Kuklinski led.) Regional Policies in Nigeria, India and Brazil (The Hague: Mouton, 1978), pp. 97 - 188; Ivo Babarovic, "Rural Marginality and Regional Development Policies in Brazil," ibid., pp. 189 - 319; and D. Grove and L. Huszar, The Towns of Ghana (Accra: Ghana University Press,1964).
34. US Agency for International Development, Office of Urban Development, "Project Agreement: Bicol River Basin Urban Functions in Rural Development Project" (Washington: USAID, 1976, mimeographed).
35. The concept is explained in Dennis A. Rondinelli, "Adjunctive Planning and Urban Development Policy," Urban Affairs Quarterly, vol. 7, no.1 (September 1971), pp. 13 - 39.
36. See Rondinelli, Bicol River Basin Urban Functions in Rural Development Project, op. cit., pp. 38 ff.
37, Elements of the methodology are explained in Dennis A. Rondinelli, "Applied Policy Analysis for Integrated Regional Development Planning in the Philippines," Third World Planning Review, vol .1, no. 2 (1979), pp. 150 - 178; Eric Chetwynd, Jr. and Benjamin B. Hawley, "Urban Functions in Rural Development in Upper Volta," (Washington: USA I D, 1977, mimeographed ).
38. Tormod Hermansen, "Spatial Organization and Economic Development: The Scope and Task of Spatial Planning," in A. Kuklinski (ed.) Regional/ Disaggregation of National Policies and Plans, (The Hague: Mouton, 1975), pp. 292 - 365; quote at p. 293.
39. Babarovic, op. cit., p. 205.
40. S.M. Shah, "Growth Centres as a Strategy for Rural Development: India Experience," Economic Development and Cultural Change, vol. 22, no. 2, (January 1974), pp. 215 - 228.
41. See Dennis A. Rondinelli and Kenneth Ruddle, "Political Commitment and Administrative Support: Preconditions of Growth with Equity Policy," Journal of Administration Overseas, vol. XVlI, no. 1 (January 1978), pp. 43 - 60.
42. See Shah, op. cit., pp. 215 - 218.
43. The methodology is concisely explained by Avrom Bendavid, Regional Economic Analysis for Practitioners: An Introduction to Common Descriptive Methods, rev, ed. (New York: Praeger, 1974), chapter 5.
44. Johnson, op. cit., 70 - 71
45. See Rondinelli and Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development, chapter 4, for a discussion of problems of stimulating the rural economy,
46. Shah, op. cit., p. 216.
47. H.E. Voelkner, "Rural Growth Poles in Micro-Regional Systems: Scalogram Measurement and Mapping for Rural Development Planning and Monitoring" (unpublished paper, 1974, mimeographed).
48. See Sulpicio S. Roco, Jr. and Frank Lynch, "Development Levels in the Bicol River Basin," SSRU Research Report Series, Report No. 17 (July 1976, unpublished draft, typescript).
49. The physical characteristics included: "a) street pattern, i.e. network of streets in either parallel or right angle orientation; b) at least 6 establishments (commercial, manufacturing, recreational and/or personal services).; and c) at least three of the following: (1) a town hall, church or chapel with religious services at least once a month, (2) a public plaza, park or cemetery, (3) a market place or building where trading activities are carried on at least once a week, and (4) a public building like a school, hospital, puericulture and health center or library." See Republic of the Philippines, National Census and Statistics Office, Phi/ippines 1970 Census of Population end Housing, National Summary, vol. ll (Manila: NCSO, 1974) p. Xiii.
50. See C.P. Andrade, C. Banerji, H.B. Fisher, G. Rushton, N.S. Saini, and A. Sharma, A Graphic Approach to Settlement Planning for Integrated Area Development, (New Delhi: Ford Foundation, 1975, mimeographed); and H. Benjamin Fisher, "Methods for Identification of Agro-Urban Centers at the Kabupaten and Provincial Levels" (Jakarta: Ford Foundation, 1975, mimeographed),
52. H.E. Voelkner, "The Structural Complexity Growth Model and Scalogram Analysis of Development and Human Ecosystems" (unpublished paper, 1974, mimeographed), p. 16.
53. H, E . Voelkner, Shortcut Methods to Assess Poverty and Social Needs for Rural Regional Planning, part 1, "Highlights of the Report and Research Design," (Geneva: United Nations Institute for Social Development, 1978, draft report, mimeographed).
54. See John U. Marshall, The Location of Service Towns (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1969); and Junio M. Ragragio, "The Design for the Identification of the Hierarchy, Centrality and Threshold of the Central Place Systems in the Bicol River Basin," Project Discussion Paper (College, Laguna: Center for Policy and Development Studies, University of the Philippines -Los Baņos, 1977, mimeographed),
55. See Center for Policy and Development Studies, University of the Philippines at Los Baņos, Urban Functions in Rural Development: A Research Project in Spatial Analysis and Planning ( Laguna, the Philippines: CPDS, 1978) for the application of the methodology in Bicol.
56. Ragragio, op. cit., provides a more detailed explanation of the procedures.
57. See Rondinelli and Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development, op. cit., chapter 7.
58. The processes are described by R. Symanski and R.J. Bromley, "Market Development and the Ecological Complex," Professional Geographer, vol. 26, no. 4 (November 1974), pp, 382-388.
59. Babarovic, op. cit., pp. 205 - 220.
60. Ibid ., pp. 208 - 209.
61. Andrade, Banerji, Fisher, Rushton, Saini, and Sharma, op. cit., pp, 4548.
62. International Labour Office, Sharing in Development: A Programme of Employment, Equity and Growth for the Philippines, (Geneva: ILO, 1972).
63. Cheetham and Hawkins, op. cit., p. 240.
64. Ibid., p. 69.
65. Rondinelli and Ruddle, Urbanization and Rural Development, op. cit., pp. 180 ff.
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