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2. Opening addresses of the workshop

Report of the organizer
Opening remarks of the united nations university representative
Opening address of the chairman of the Indonesian institute of sciences

Report of the organizer

Dr. Aprilani Soegiarto
Project Manager, LIPI-UN University Project on Coastal Resources Management

It is a great honour and personal privilege for me on behalf of the local organizer to welcome you all in the opening ceremony of the LIPI-UNU Programmatic Workshop on Coastal Resources Management. We are indeed grateful to you for your active participation and interest in this programme. On behalf of the Organizing Committee and all of us may I also express our gratitude to the honourable Chaiman of LIPI, Prof. Bachtiar Rifai, for being with us this morning and agreeing to officially open our programme and deliver his keynote address.

You might have guessed from the title that this programme is co-sponsored by LIPI (the Indonesian Institute of Sciences) and the United Nations University-in particular its Natural Resources Programme. It is my privilege to inform you that our programme consists of three different activities:

1. The Workshop, which commences today and will end on 15 September, with a two-day field trip to the Cimanuk Delta in Indramayu, on the north coast of West Java. Originally, the Workshop was planned for about 30 participants. However, because of the increasing interest of many scientists and planners in this programme, the latest figure is 38 participants, and it is with deep regret and apology that we are forced not to accept still more requests for participation. Among the participants we are happy to welcome ten participants and observers from abroad. They are: two from the United Nations University, Tokyo; one from Japan; three from Australia; one observer from England; and two observers from the USA.

There will be nine main papers presented in the Workshop. They deal with various aspects (geology, oceanography, fisheries, water pollution, and socioeconomic) of coastal areas of the north coast of West Java between the Citarum Delta and the Cimanuk Delta. In addition, there will be three more invited papers, two on problems of fisheries and one on colonization of coastal wetlands.

2. The Training Course on the Research Methodology of Coastal Resources Management, which will run from 17 September until 29 September, with six days of field work in Bandung and on the Cimanuk Delta. The six trainees will be trained in research methodology and the use of some equipment for this purpose. The trainees were selected through nationwide competition, and applications came from various universities, research institutions, and government agencies in Indonesia. The lecturers for the training are: three research workers from LIPI, one research worker from the Marine Fisheries Research Institute, and two university professors from the Department of Geography, University of Melbourne.

And the six trainees are: Miss Tuti Susilowati of the Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Miss Anna Manuputty of the Ambon Station of the National Oceanological Institute, Mr. Suhardjono Prawiroatmodjo of the National Biological Institute, Mr. Made Sumatra of the Indonesian Atomic Energy Agency, and Mr. Dharma Arief and Mr. Lukman Effendi, both of the National Oceanological Institute in Jakarta.

3. Research: Each trainee will then carry out his or her own individual activities in an integrated research programme in the Cimanuk Delta. The research programme will last for about ten months. At the end of this period they are required to prepare final reports, which will be used as a basis to develop the second phase of the programme.

All of us should hope that the results of this LIPI and UN University joint programme will enhance the interest in as well as the capabilities of research and management of coastal resources in Indonesia, so that through this cooperative programme we will be able to develop and manage these resources not only for the present, but also for our future generations. Therefore, at this opportunity may I express our sincere appreciation to the United Nations University and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences for supporting this programme; without their support the programme would not exist In addition may I on behalf of the organizers extend our gratitude to those who have prepared the papers to be presented in the Workshop, and to those who are willing to take some time out of their busy schedules to teach the research methodology in the training programme and later on to supervise the trainees in their research work


Opening remarks of the united nations university representative

Dr. A. C. J. Burgers

On behalf of the Rector of the United Nations University, Dr James Hester, I transmit to you greetings and best wishes for a successful workshop and training

This workshop and subsequent training is the start of the University Project on Coastal Resources Management, and we are pleased that this can take place in a country with such an enormous coastline and large variety of coastal zone types.

Our thanks go to the Government of Indonesia, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), and our host, the National Institute of Oceanology, for all the arrangements made for this workshop. The fact that you, Mr. Chairman, agreed to open this workshop and the presence this morning here of Marskal Dr. Sunaryo and of Dr. Martojo clearly reflect the interest which LIPI and Indonesian Aeronautics and Hydrology attach to this meeting. I would like also to take this opportunity to underline the significant role which a member of the advisory committee of the UN University Natural Resources Programme, Dr. Didin Sastrapradia, and also Dr. Aprilani Soegiarto, have played in realizing this UN University-LIPI activity.

As the UN University is the youngest of the UN organizations, and not Yet so well known as other UN bodies like Unesco, FAO, ILO, UNEP, UNDP, and others, I will give you a brief outline of its aims and programmes.

The idea for the establishment of a United Nations University having an international faculty, its own campus, and laboratories where students from all parts of the world could study and receive degrees was originally put forward by U Thant in 1969 when he was Secretary General of the United Nations. This concept, however, could not meet general approval as it was feared that it would contribute to the brain drain.

The belief that the United Nations needed an intellectual arm capable of undertaking research and advance training concerned with major world problems persisted, and the original proposal was modified and studied by the committees of the United Nations and Unesco.

These studies resulted in the present concept of the United Nations University which stimulates, supports, and coordinates research and advanced training in institutions organized into networks throughout the world. Consequently, the University neither has a central faculty and main campus nor provides degrees to students. This concept of the University was approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations in late 1973. The Government of Japan then acted as host for the University, which started its work in Tokyo in 1975.

The UN University identifies those urgent problems that can be alleviated through research and advanced training. It carefully seeks out institutions that can most effectively conduct such work, organizes networks of collaborating institutions, and disseminates knowledge generated by them.

The University has a particular obligation to help and strengthen research and advanced training capabilities in developing countries, and to break the isolation in which scientists in these countries often find themselves, and make them part of the world community of scholars. The academic freedom and autonomy given to the University by its Charter is quite unique within the UN system. The University can sponsor or set up research and training centres. It can assume responsibility for existing institutions, pursue its work through arrangements with associated institutions, or make contracts with institutions or individuals for specific tasks. Thus, the University is an independent entity in determining its programmes and affiliations.

The University is governed by a Council made up of 24 distinguished persons, each from a different country, serving in his individual capacity. The Council members are appointed jointly by the Secretary-General of the United Nations and the Director-General of Unesco. The staff of the University is headed by the Rector, who with the help of his four Vice-Rectors and other academic and administrative personnel gives direction and supervision to the programme planning and development.

The financing of the University is quite different from that of other UN agencies. On a voluntary basis countries contribute to its Endowment Fund, and the interest from this fund provides the financial source for our activities. This safeguards the University's academic freedom and autonomy. Many countries have made contributions to this fund, and pledges already exceed US $125 million.

The Council of the University has selected the following three areas for its activities:

  1. World Hunger
  2. Human and Social Development
  3. Use and Management of Natural Resources.

The Natural Resources Programme comprises three sub programmes:

  1. The ecological basis for rural development in the humid tropics
  2. Assessment of the application of knowledge to arid lands problems
  3. Energy for rural communities.

The coastal resources management project is intended to be the beginning of a new sub-programme. However, close links are expected with the first sub-programme, especially the project on water-land interactive systems. In this context a research project is being carried out on the Citarum Delta, through the Centre for Natural Resource Management and Environmental Studies of Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB), which is a University Associated Institution. I am pleased to see a strong delegation of IPB in the audience, and look forward to their input to our work in the coming days. The complex of environmental factors which govern the brackish-water fisheries in the coastal fish ponds-tambak-is the object of this latter project. The ecological balance and the productivity of the tambak system depends largely on the right degree of salinity of the tambak. Thus the optimal functioning of the water inlets from the river and the inlets (high tide) from and outlets (low tide) to the sea is of crucial importance.

The northern coastline of Java, with its deltas growing into the Java Sea, built from the high sediment load of its rivers, is a highly dynamic one. This is one of the causes of silting of the inlets and outlets of the tambak, which affects directly the fish and shrimp production and thus the socio-economic conditions of the local population. It has been shown also that the insecticides and fertilizers washed from the rice fields into the tambak and the invasion of fish fry and shrimp predators are other factors which influence the delicate ecological balance of the tambak system.

To know more about the dynamics of the coastline, which affect much more than the coastal tambak systems alone, the present workshop and training course was designed. The nucleus of this workshop and training is the six young scientists present among us here, who, following this workshop, will receive training on the Cimanuk Delta, east of the Citarum River.

This multi-disciplinary team, under their Indonesian and Australian supervisors, will collect data on coastal dynamics, sedimentation rates, tidal movements, silting, flora, fauna, ecology, and the impact of human activities in this coastal area.

It is expected that the analysis of the data collected during the next year will provide insight into how the deterioration of the environment in this coastal zone can be prevented. This will be of interest not only for Indonesia, but also for numerous other countries in the humid tropics which face similar problems in their comparable coastal areas.

The lectures given by the scientists and the field trip to the Cimanuk Delta in the coming days will introduce us to the scientific methodology of coastal research. I urge the team of trainees to participate fully in the exchange of ideas on the various aspects of coastal research methodologies with the Indonesian and Australian supervisors.

I would like to thank you all for coming here and providing us with your wisdom and advice in the coming days. I wish you all a fruitful workshop.


Opening address of the chairman of the Indonesian institute of sciences

Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Tb. Bachtiar Rifai

I deem it a physical duty and a privilege to extend my sincere welcome, on behalf of the Indonesian government and the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), to all of you who honour us with your presence at this opening session of the LIPI-United Nations University Programmatic Workshop on Coastal Resources Management.

This is not the first time the University has co-operated with the Indonesian government. In 1978 - 1979 a project on landwater interactive systems was initiated, in cooperation with the Bogor University of Agriculture. A workshop in this field was held at Bogor in September 1978. This year UNU has two major projects with LIPI: this present workshop and training, and a workshop on Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues in Rural Communities, which is scheduled to be held in December 1979 in Bali.

I understand that these workshops are only the beginning of a long-term programme. The selection of the topics for the present workshop is indeed timely, since our government has been making efforts to further develop and increase the use of coastal resources. There is no question about the important role of coastal resources in Indonesia, considering that we have a coastline estimated to be 61,147 km in length which might be the longest in the world, and that 75 per cent of the cities inhabited by at least 100,000 people are located in coastal areas.

There is a substantial amount of activities and potentialities within the coastal area, comprising among others the settlements, brackish-water fish ponds, natural coastal forests, paddy fields, salt-processing industries, recreation and tourism, harbours, commerce, communication and shipping, seaplant resources, fish resources, mineral resources, building material resources, etc. The definition of coastal area itself could indeed be very broad, being the area of interaction between land and sea: In the direction of the land the coastal area includes land, dry as well as underwater, which is still influenced by sea characteristics like tidal flats, sea wind, and salty water; in the direction of the sea it includes parts of the sea which are still influenced by processes incurred in the hinterland, such as forest destruction and pollution.

The coastline is an area which has experienced relatively frequent physical changes, accretion as well as abrasion. In Indonesia these changes may be caused by natural as well as human factors. The natural factors include wave, sedimentation, coast morphology, tidal flats, eustatics, tectonics, vulcanism activities, tsunami, chemical processing, etc., while the human factors comprise waste disposal, brackish-water ponds, salt processing, etc. Since both the natural and human factors may bring about serious problems for the coastal area the management of coastal resources deserves our special attention.

In article 33 paragraph 3 of the Indonesian Constitution of 1945, which is the basis for the management and utilization of our natural resources, the following has been stipulated: Land and water, and the natural resources contained therein, shall be controlled by the state and utilized for the greatest feasible prosperity of the people.

With the above guidance we should, therefore, try to make a comprehensive yet realistic plan for the integrated management and utilization of the coastal resources. For this purpose an inventory of basic data should consequently be made at the very outset, while the public should be better informed of the government policy. A series of special training courses will undoubtedly help to improve the achievement of these objectives, as well as the efforts to create a greater awareness of and interest in the problems of coastal resources among both the public and government, for example by increasing the interest in the sea through wise development of recreation and tourism, coastal reserves and conservation, etc.

I am confident that after your deliberations you will be able to set up a plan for a detailed study of problems relevant to coastal management, with special reference to the Cimanuk Delta as the first step, bearing in mind the practical applications that will benefit the people living in that coastal area.

I trust that the trainees will gain experience in the techniques of survey, research, and problem analysis necessary for the application of environmental management in coastal regions. Furthermore, useful data for coastal management in Indonesia could perhaps also be acquired along with relevant material from other comparable coastal regions, so that a broader basis for the assessment of coastal problems in Indonesia could be provided. I do hope that the experience gained in this first year will serve as the basis to proceed to the second phase of the project, which will in turn be followed by other phases as has already been planned.

In conclusion, may I express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to the United Nations University for having the confidence to invite us to participate in this co-operative venture, and to all the institutions whose contributions are necessary to help us realize its goals.

In fostering that hope I have, therefore, genuine pleasure in declaring the present LIPI-UNU Programmatic Workshop on Coastal Resources Management open, and I sincerely wish you every success in your discussion and deliberations.

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