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The total amino acid profile of a food protein expressed in relation to some standard is a good indicator of the potential nutritive value, but it may at times be misleading if one or more of the essential amino acids are only partially available. If this is true, the "actual" nutritive value of the protein will be less than its "predicted" value, obtained from its amino acid profile. It is therefore critical that the availability of the reactive, but most frequently limiting essential amino acids, Iysine, methionine, and cystine,* be known. This is especially true for proteins present in processed foods and food ingredients.
Before amino acid data, whether "available" or "total," can be used as indicators of potential nutritional value, they must be expressed in relation to some reference standard. Such standards and the calculation of amino acid score are discussed in detail in the following chapter.
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79. A.G. Roach, P. Sanderson, and D.R. Williams, "Comparison of Methods for the Determination of Available Lysine Value in Animal and Vegetable Protein Sources," J. Sci. Fd. Agric.,18: 274-278 (1967).
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81. R.F.. Hurrel, P. Lerman, and K.J. Carpenter, "Reactive Lysine in Foodstuffs as Measured by a Rapid Dye Binding Procedure," J. Fd. Sci., 44: 1221-1227 (1979).
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86. D. Skagberg and T. Richardson, "Preparation and Use of an Enzyme Electrode for Specific Analysis of LLysine in Cereal Grains," CerealChem., 56 (3): 147-152 (1979).
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107. J. Atkinson and K.J. Carpenter, "The Nutritive Value of Meat Meals. ll. Influence of Raw Materials and Processing on Protein Quality,"J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 21: 366-373 (1970).
108, R.F. Hurrell and K.J. Carpenter, "The Use of Three Dye-Binding Procedures for the Assessment of Heat Damage to Food Proteins,"Brit J. Nutr.,33: 101-115 (1975).
109. R.F. Hurrell and K.J. Carpenter, "An Approach to thq Rapid Measurement of Reactive Lysine in Foods by Dye-Binding,"Proc. Nutr. Soc., 35: 23A-24A (1976).
110. K.H. Ney and l.P.G. Wirotama, "Determination of the Available Lysine in Milk and Processed Cheese by the Reactive Dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R.," Z. Lebensm.-Unters Forsch., 144: 92-95 (1970).
111. H.D. Pruss and K.H. Ney, "Determination of the Available Lvsine in Whey Powder, Whey Protein and Precipitated Casein by the Remazol Blue R. Method," Z. Lebensm.-Unters Forsch., 148: 347-351 (1972).
112. A. Frolich, "Reaction between Phthalein Dyes and Heated Foodstuffs," Nature (Lond.),174: 879 (1954).
113. E. Olomucki and S. Bornstein, "The Dye Absorption Test for the Evaluation of Soybean Meal Quality," J. Assoc. Off. Analyt. Chem., 43: 440-442 (1960).
114.1. Ascarelli and B. Gestetner, "Chemical and Biological Evaluation of Some Protein Needs for Poultry,"J. Sci. Fd. Agric., 13: 401-410 (1962).
115. C.M. Lyman, W.Y. Chang, and J.R. Couch, "Evaluation of Protein Quality in Cottonseed Meals bV Chick Growth and by a Chemica Index Method," J. Nutr., 49: 679-690 (1953).
116. J.P. Van Buren, K.H. Steinkraus, L.R. Hackler, l. El-Rawi, and D.B. Hand, "Indices of Protein Quality in Dried Soymilks,"J. Agric Fd. Chem., 12: 524-528 (1964).
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