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Appendix A: agenda of the united nations university-university of Khartoum workshop on arid lands management
Appendix B: workshop participants
Appendix C: draft statutes, institute of environmental studies, university of Khartoum
Appendix D: syllabus details for proposed M.Sc. programmes in environmental studies at the university of Khartoum
Appendix E: selected list of books and monographs published by the central arid zone research institute, Jodhpur, India
Appendix F: content of training programmes in arid lands management proposed by the university of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia
Appendix G: information on the research centre on development intropical dry areas, university of Rouen, France
Appendix H:course outline in training for arid lands management proposed by H-U.Thimm


Appendix A: agenda of the united nations university-university of Khartoum workshop on arid lands management

22 - 26 October 1978

Sunday, 22 October
8:30 - 10:30 a.m. Opening ceremony, Friendship Hall

Professor Ali Fadl, Vice Chancellor, University of Khartoum
1. Opening Speech: Dr. Bashir Abbadi, Minister for Transport and Communications and Chairman of the Khartoum University Council, on behalf of President Nimeiri
2. Introduction: Professor Walther Manshard, Vice-Rector, Programme on the Use and Management of Natural Resources, United Nations University
3.Professor M.D. Al-Khalifa, Dean, Faculty of Science and Chairman of the Institute of Environmental Studies, University of Khartoum

11 a.m. - 1 p.m. Working session, Staff Room, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum

Chairman: Professor W. Manshard  
  1. UNU Arid Lands Sub-programme: Professor J.A. Mabbutt, Programme Co- ordinator
  2. Higher Education in the Sudan: Professor M.O. Beshir, Dean, Graduate College, University of Khartoum

5 - 7 p.m. Arid lands management in the Sudan

Chairman: Professor M.O. Beshir
1. Dr. S. Rashid
2. Dr. A. Darrag
3. Professor A. Rapp, Lund University, Sweden and Professor H. Mensching, University of Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany
Report of the United Nations University Evaluation Mission to the Sudan

Monday, 23 October
8:30 - 10:30 a.m. Assessment studies

Professor Yusuf Fadl Hasan  
1. Dr. Douglas L. Johnson,
Clark University, USA
Management Strategies for Drylands: Available
Options and Unanswered Questions
2. M.M. Khogali,
Department of Geography,
University of Khartoum
Nomads and Their Sedentarization in the Sudan
3. Dr. Ibrahim Alam al-Din  
4. Dr. Sharaf el-Din Bannaga, Water-Health Relationships in el-Obeid Town: An Example from Urban
Khartoum Polytechnic Semi-arid Areas, Western Sudan
5. Dr. M.A. el-Rasheed,
Department of Forestry,
University of Khartoum
Soil Conservation and Land Reclamation in the Sudan
Professor H. Mensching  
1. Dr. Salih A. el-Arifi,
Department of Geography,
University of Khartoum
Some Aspects of Local Government and
Environmental Management in the Sudan
2. Dr. Yagoub Abdalla Mohammed,
Department of Geography, University of Khartoum
Impact of Improved Rural Water
Supplies on Settlement Distribution
in Western Sudan: The Case of East Kordafan and el-Fasher Districts
3. Professor H-U. Thimm,
Justus-Liebig University,
Giessen, Federal Republic of
Socio-Economic Assessment of Agricultural Development Projects in
the Sudan

5 - 8 p.m. Network and other institutional arrangements



Professor M.D. el-Khalifa  
1. Dr. G. Karrar,
Desertification to the
Desertification Secretariat, United Nations Environment Programme

2. Dr. J.H. Davies,
University College,
Department of Geography,
University College,

3. Professor J. Gallais,
Countries of
Laboratoire de Recherches sur
les Regions Seches,
Rouen University, France

4. Dr. H.S. Mann,
Central Arid Zone Research
Jodhpur, India

5. Professor J.A. Mabbutt,
School of Geography,
University of New South
University of New South Wales
Kensington Australia

Relevance of the UN Plan to Combat
Khartoum Workshop on Arid Lands Management

Proposed Joint Research Project between
Swansea, and the University of Khartoum under the United
Nations University Arid Lands Sub-programme Swansea, Wales

Report on Geographical Research in Francophone
Western and Central Sahel
The Central Arid Zone Research institute,
Jodhpur, India, and Its
Relevance to the United Nations University
Network in Africa
Proposed Training Programmes in Arid Lands
Management at the
Wales, Australia

Tuesday, 24 October
6:30 a.m. Field trip to Gezira and Rahad Schemes

Breakfast at the Gezira University Lunch at Rahad Scheme Return to Khartoum about 9 p.m.

Wednesday, 25 October
9 a.m. - 1 p.m. Working groups

Group A: Research projects Leader: Dr. Randall Baker
Group B: Training Leader: Dr. G. Karrar

5 - 8 p.m. Plenary session
Chairman: Professor J. A. Mabbutt
Report of the working groups
Approval of workshop reports
Vote of Thanks: M.M. Khogali

Appendix B: workshop participants

University of Khartoum
(P.O. Box 321, Khartoum, Sudan)

Dr. M.H. Abu Sin
Department of Geography
Dr. I.O. Alam al-Din

Head, Department of Geography
Dr. S.A. el-Arifi
Department of Geography

Dr. S.D. Bannaga
Department of Engineering

Professor M.O. Beshir
Dean, Graduate College

Dr. A.M. Fadl
Vice-Chancel lo

Dr. B. Fadlalla
Department of Zoology

Dr. M.A. el-Hag
School of Mathematics

Dr. A.M. Hakim
Head, Department of Archaeology

Dr. H.l. Hamid
Head, Department of Hydrology

Professor Y.F. Hassan
Dean, Faculty of Arts

Director, Institute of Asian and African Studies
Professor M.D. al-Khalifa

Dean, Faculty of Science
Chairman, Institute of Environmental Studies

M.M. Khogali
Department of Geography

Dr. A. Maghrabi
Director, Hydro-Biological Unit

Dr. Y.A. Mohamed
Department of Geography

Dr. S. el-Raba'a
Department of Geology
Dr. M.A. el-Rasheed

Director, Department of Forestry
Dr. S. el-Rashid

Director, Development Studies and Research Centre
Professor A.M. Salih

Dean, Faculty of Veterinary Science
M.T. el-Sid
Institute of Environmental Studies

Representatives of Other Sudanese Organizations

Dr. B. Abbadi
Minister for Transport and Communications
Chairman, University of Khartoum Council

Dr. A. Darrag
Director, Department of Range Management
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources
Khartoum North

Dr. S.A.R. Hakim
Agricultural Research Corporation

Dr. M.O.H. el-Karouri
National Council for Research

Dr. H.A.R. Musnad
Forestry Research Institute-Soba

Dr. M.B. Nimir
Wildlife Research Division
Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Overseas Participants

Dr. P.R. Baker
School of Development Studies
University of East Anglia
Norwich, UK

J.W. Bruce
The Ford Foundation
Khartoum, Sudan

Dr. H.R.J. Davies
Department of Geography
University College
Swansea, Wales, UK

Professor J. Gallais
Centre de Recherche sur le Developpement et
Amenagement Regional
University of Rouen
Mont-Saint-Aignan, France

Professor D. L. Johnson
Program for International Development and Social Change
Clark University
Worcester, Massachusetts, USA

Dr. G. Karrar
Secretariat, United Nations Conference on Desertification
Nairobi, Kenya

Professor J.A. Mabbutt
School of Geography
University of New South Wales
Kensington, N.S.W., Australia

Dr. H.S. Mann
Director, Central Arid Zone Research Institute
Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India

Professor Horst Mensching
Institut für Geographie und Wirtschaftsgeographie
University of Hamburg
Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany

Professor Anders Rapp
Department of Physical Geography
Lund University
Lund, Sweden

Professor H-U. Thimm
Zentrum fur regionale Entwicklungsforschung
Justus-Liebig University
Giessen, Federal Republic of Germany

The United Nations University Programme on the Use and Management of Natural Resources

Professor Walther Manshard
Vice- Rector
Lee MacDonald
Programme Officer

Appendix C: draft statutes, institute of environmental studies, university of Khartoum

(i) There is hereby constituted in the University of Khartoum an Institute of Environmental Studies.
(ii) The Institute so constituted shall function as an interdisciplinary platform for research, teaching, and training in environmental studies affiliated to the Faculty of Science.

2. Definitions
In this Statute, unless the context otherwise requires, the following words and expressions shall have the meaning assigned to hereunder:

(i) "Institute" shall mean the Institute of Environmental Studies.
(ii) "Board" shall mean the Board of the institute of Environmental Studies.
(iii) "Academic Committee" shall mean the Academic Committee of the Institute of Environmental Studies.
(iv) "Director" shall mean the Director of the Institute of Environmental Studies.
(v) "Programme Co-ordinator" shall mean leader of a team working on a certain problem or project.

3. Objectives
Without prejudice to the functions and powers of the Council, Senate, Faculty Boards, University departments and units, the objectives of the Institute shall be:

(i) to promote, co-ordinate and disseminate information about research, teaching, and training in environmental studies concerning the conservation, use, and management of natural resoruces especially at the national and regional level;
(ii) to encourage and promote interdisciplinary research projects based on teamwork independently, or with other University departments and units, and to constitute the initial platform for multidisciplinary ret search for the Graduate College.
(iii) to co-operate with all persons, institutions, and other bodies interested in its fields of studies and to establish regular contacts with the same whenever that is deemed desirable, especially with the National Committee on Environment of the Sudan;
(iv) to offer post-graduate studies leading to higher degrees,
(v) to offer a programme of training to develop the skills and capabilities necessary for practical studies of environmental problems, and to give deplomas and certificates;
(vi) to assist and advise in the teaching of environmental studies in other University departments and units;
(vii) to introduce full-time study leading to an undergraduate degree in Environmental Studies in the University of Khartoum;
(viii) to establish a documentation centre for environmental studies of national and regional interest;
(ix) to promote further understanding of environment through holding conferences, workshops, and public lectures;
(x) to publish the data resulting from projects or work undertaken under its jurisdiction;
(xi) to undertake study contracts on projects with concerned Government and private agencies;
(xii) to establish research units, centres, or outpost stations, etc. found desirable for the implementation of the objectives of the Institute.

4. Constitution of the Board of the Institute
(i) The Institute shall have a governing board to be known at the Board of the Institute of Environmental Studies.
(ii) The Board shall consist of the following:
(1) the Dean, Faculty of Science (Chairman);
(2) the Vice-Chancellor or his Deputy;
(3) the Dean of the Graduate College;
(4) Representatives of Faculties-5 from Science, 4 from Agriculture, 3 from Engineering, 2 from Economics and Social Studies, 2 from Medicine, 2 from Veterinary Science, 1 from Education, 1 from Law, 2 from Arts, namely Geography and Archaeology;
(5) the Director of the Institute of Animal Production;
(6) the Director of the School of Mathematical Sciences;
(7) the Director of the Development Studies an Research Centre;
(8) all Programme Co-ordinators;
(9) four persons engaged in environmental problems in other Government Departments or other relevant bodies elected by the Board for are newable period of two years;
(10) the Secretary of the National Committee on Environment, N.C.R.;
(11) the Director of the Department of Meteorology;
(12) the Under-secretary for National Resources or his representative;
(13) the Director of the Institute (Secretary).

5. Duties and Functions of the Board of the Institute
Without prejudice to the powers of the Chancellor, the Vice Chancellor, the Council, and the Senate, the Board shall:
(i) formulate the general policy of the Institute and approve plans drawn up by the Academic Committee;
(ii) advise the Vice-Chancellor on the budget and financing of the activities of the Institute and to allocate funds for its disposal;
(iii) review periodically the research, studies, teaching, and training activities of the Institute;
(iv) co-ordinate the activities of the Institute with relevant local and foreign agencies;
(v) create or recommend administrative arrangements and form committees necessary for the functioning of the Institute;
(vi) render an annual report on the activities of the Institute to the Senate and Council through the Chairman of the Board; and
(vii) meet at least twice a year.

6. Constitution of the Academic Committee There shall be established an Academic Committee of the Institute which shall consist of the following:
(i) the Director of the Institute (Chairman);
(ii) all Programme Co-ordinators:
(iii) three members from within the University elected by the Academic Committee from among those engaged in the activities of the Institute, each from a different Faculty, for a period of two years; these members shall be eligible for re-appointment;
(iv) three members from outside the University elected by the Academic Committee from among those engaged in the activities of the Institute, for a period of two years; these members shall be eligible for ret appointment;
(v) any co-opted members, without having the right to vote.

7. Duties and Functions of the Academic Committee
The Academic Committee shall:

(i) advise the Board of the Institute on academic matters pertaining to research, studies, teaching, and training in the Institute;
(ii) decide on matters concerning teaching, courses, syllabi, examinations and degrees, diplomas or certificates and present them to the Senate through the Board of the Institute;
(iii) help and advise the Director in carrying out the Policy of the Institute as laid down by the Board of the Institute;
(iv) prepare section programmes and over-all programme proposals for the Board; (v) select persons for research programmes and projects and to organize inservice training; (vi) meet at least once a month during session.

8. The Director
There shall be a Director of the Institute who shall be appointed by the Vice-Chancellor of the University in consultation with the Chairman of the Institute for a period of three years and who may be eligible for re-appointment with such conditions and terms of service as may be prescribed in accordance with the University statutes.

9. Duties and Functions of the Director
Without prejudice to the functions of the Board of the Institute and the Academic Committee the Director shall:
(i) be in general academic and administrative charge of the Institute and the execution of its policy subject to the directives of the Board;
(ii) be responsible for the submission of the annual budget proposals after consultation with the Academic Committee to the Board;
(iii) ensure that funds allocated for the Institute are spent on the programmes approved by the Board of the institute and in accordance with the approved estimate;
(iv) submit a bi-annual progress report to the Board;
(v) be responsible, through the Chairman of the Board, to the Vice-Chancellor for the discharge of his administrative duties and functions;
(vi) appoint Programme Co-ordinators in consultation
with the Academic Committee subject to approval by the Chairman of the Board;
(vii) carry out any other functions assigned by the Board.

10. Finance of the Institute
The activity of the institute shall, subject to the advice of the Board and in accordance with the financial regulation of the University of Khartoum, be financed out of income received from the following sources:
(i) University of Khartoum;
(ii) grants and donations;
(iii) fees paid for work carried out by the Institute; (iv) any possible return from activities carried out by the Institute.

Appendix D: syllabus details for proposed M.Sc. programmes in environmental studies at the university of Khartoum

Compulsory Core Subjects

First semester

Principles of environmental science
Applied climatology and geomorphology
Integrated ecology
Remote sensing and cartography
Production technology and engineering
Methods of environmental research
One optional subject

Second semester

Environmental management and planning
Applied rural sociology
Environmental and resource law
Community health and demography
Environmental economics
Methods of environmental research and assessment, including environmental case studies
One optional subject

Options and Relevant Subjects of Study

Fresh water eco-systems management

Limnology and fisheries
Hydrology and water resources management
Soil and water conservation
Range and wildlife management

Arid land management

Marginal land use
Environmental forestry
Soil and water conservation
Range and wildlife management

Coastal zone management

Oceanography and marine eco-systems
Hydrology and water resource management
Minerals and energy resource management
Industrial and urban water-use

Urban and regional management

Environmental health, including pollution
Minerals and energy resource management

Industrial and urban water-use

Details of the Syllabus

First semester

Principles of environmental science (30 hours of lectures). Logic of the course; biophysical systems; socio-economic systems; history of man and the environment; emergence of agriculture; man, resources, and technology; population growth; environmental impacts of development; environmental perception; natural hazards.

Applied climatology and geomorphology (15 hours of lectures and 15 hours practical). Basic concepts; energy flows; storage; moisture; mass flows; basic transformations; budgeting techniques; techniques of application at macro and micro levels; problems of desertification; irrigation and crop growth; impact of man-made structures of fluvial and marine processes; properties of soils; other man-made impacts.

Integrated ecology (30 hours of lectures and excursions). Principles of ecology; eco-system structure; bio-geochemical cycles; population dynamics; competition; predation; dispersion; dispersal; ecological genesis and evolution; animal-plant interaction; food chains; biotic communities; ecological successions.

Remote sensing and cartography (10 hours of lectures and 20 hours practical). Basic physics of remote sensing; remote sensing technology, including multi-spectral scanning; Sudanese and world coverage; interpretation of remotesensing data; resolution of surface details; ground verification surveys; use and interpretation of aerial photographs; presentation of data and maps; choropleth and isopleth maps; cartographic graphics; basic properties of maps and their interpretation; computer mapping; topographic and resource maps of the Sudan.

Production technology and engineering (30 hours of lectures). World food demand; protein and calorie needs; constraints on agricultural production; Green Revolution; agriculture in the Sudan and Africa; irrigation and dam construction; world fisheries; fisheries in the Sudan and Africa; fishery management; resources of the Sudan and Africa in timber, minerals, and fuels; principles of forestry; forest production in the Sudan and Africa; mineral production; mining and the environment; power production and the environment; history of industrial growth; industry and the environment; processes in chemical engineering; appropriate technology; urban growth; housing; transport planning.

Methods of environmental research (30 hours of lectures). The importance of quantitative methods in the solution of environmental problems; basic mathematics; calculus; differentiation; matrix algebra; descriptive statistics; introduction to probability theory; frequency distribution and dispersion; tests of hypothesis and significance; chi-square and student t-tests; non-parametric tests; correlation and regression.

Second semester

Environmental management end planning (15 hours of lectures and 15 hours practical). Basic concepts; physical, socio-political, and economic approaches to management problems; multiple-objective and multiple-solution planning; integrated management approach; planning models; institutional factors affecting planning and management in the Sudan; applications to watersheds, arid lands, and urban environmental management and planning; impact assessment as a planning tool.

Applied rural sociology (20 hours of lectures and 10 hours practical). Theories of rural society; structure and process in Sudanese rural society; perception and attitude towards health, environmental hazards, innovation, adaption, resistance, and diffusion; processes and patterns of migration in the Sudan; nomadism; social impact assessment of programmes and policies and their mitigation; implications for planners; participatory planning and management; investigative techniques.

Environmental and resource law (20 hours of lectures). Principles of law; basis of Sudanese Law; customary and traditional law; Islamic law; land-use law and land tenure; water-use rights; forest law; mineral resources law; fishery regulations; laws relating to pollution, health, and safety regulations in factories; international law; law of the sea; effects of environmental regulations on trade.

Community health and demography (20 hours of lectures and 5 hours practical). Population geography; demographic principles; population projections; population control and family planning; concepts of health and environment; introduction to infectious diseases; principles of epidermiology; enteric diseases; cholera; safe water supply; case studies of smallpox, malaria, and schistosomiasis; organization of community health services; carcinogens; health hazards of heavy metals and pesticides; food hygiene.

Environmental economics (25 hours of lectures and 20 hours practical). Nature of economics; allocation of resources; micro-economic theory; supply and demand; decision theory (case studies from agriculture); common property problems; fishery economics; cost-benefit and cost effectiveness analysis; project evaluation (case studies); economics of land-use; resource depletion and conservation; economics of pollution control.

Methods of environmental research and assessment-including environmental case studies (35 hours). Linear programming; environmental modeling; research techniques; experimental design; sampling and data acquisition; questionnaire design; case studies.

Details of Optional Subjects

Fresh water eco-systems management

Limnology and fisheries (45 hours). Introductory limnology; water productivity; biotic communities; Nile eco-system; Weld ecology; ichthyology systematics; fishery management; principles of fish culture; methods of fishing and preservation.

Hydrology and water resources management (45 hours). The hydrological cycle; precipitation; evaporation and evapotranspiration; infiltration; storage; run-off; ground water; sediment transport; water-use (irrigation, industry, domestic, navigation, fisheries, recreation); sources of water (precipitation, lakes, rivers, ground water, swamps, re-use, desalination); conservation of water quality (in irrigation, industry and domestic use); introduction to optimization and water resources management.

Soil and wafer conservation (45 hours). Soil formation; horizon development; soil genesis; soil classification; the catena concept; water movement in soils; soil structure; nutrient properties of soils; salinization; soil capability evaluation.

Range and wildlife management (45 hours). Range ecosystems (soils and vegetation); range land-use; carrying capacities; animal husbandry; animal diseases; concept of wildlife conservation; population levels of various species; interactions and seasonal migrations; hunting and harvesting of wildlife; socio-economic aspects of wildlife; future of wildlife in the Sudan.

Arid lands management

Marginal land use (45 hours). Definitions; climatic and manmade hazards; soil and plant degradation; cultural evolution of arid lands; adaptive approaches to arid land use in the Sudan; reclamation policies, strategies, and techniques.

Environmental forestry (45 hours). Forestry and the environment; shelter belts; wind-breaks; use of trees in rehabilitation of land; amenity trees; urban green space and country parks; interaction of forestry with other land-uses; forests and problems of energy supply; community forests; forest production and concept of sustained yield; silvicultural systems; institutional aspects of forestry and national forest policies.

Soil and wafer conservation. As under "Fresh water ecosystems management."

Range and wildlife management.As under "Fresh water eco-systems management."

Coastal zone management

Oceanography and marine eco-systems (45 hours). Introduction to oceanography; environmental factors and methods of measurement; water movements; salinity; regional oceanography; up-welling; the Red Sea; the seashore; mangrove swamps; coral reefs; coastal fisheries; pelagic fisheries.

Hydrology and water resources management.As under "Fresh water eco-systems management."

Minerals and energy-resource management.Under preparation.

Industrial and urban water use (45 hours). Sources and problems of obtaining water; use and re-use; water quality; water planning for future needs.

Urban and regional management

Environmental health, including pollution (45 hours). (Partly under preparation.) Sources of pollution; natural geological sources; mining; agriculture; domestic and industrial solid and liquid wastes; atmospheric pollution; vibration and noise; effects of pollution on health; water-borne diseases; effects of pollution on agriculture and wildlife; damage to buildings; measurement and monitoring of pollutants; chemical, physical, biological, and remote-sensing; surveys and statistical patterns; control and abatement; methods of treatment; control policy and legislation.

Transport (45 hours). Problems of urban and rural transportation in developing countries; relationship of transportation to land-use; environmental impacts of transportation; economics of transportation systems; integrated transportation planning.

Minerals and energy resource management.As under "Coastal zone management."

Industrial and urban water use. As under "Coastal zone management."

Appendix E:selected list of books and monographs published by the central arid zone research institute, Jodhpur, India


Ganguly, J.K., and R.N. Kaul.1969. Wind Erosion Control. New Delhi: ICAR. 57 pp.
Kaul, R.N., ed. 1970. Afforestation in Arid Zones. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk, 435 pp.


Raheja, P.C. 1961. Double Cropping. ICAR Research Series No. 8 New Delhi. 32 pp.
---. 1961. Water Requirements of Indian Field Crops ICAR Research Series No. 28. New Delhi. 25 pp.
---. 1966. Soil Productivity and Crop Growth. Bombay: Asia Publishing House. 474 pp.


Shankarnarayan, K.A., and P.M. Dabadghao.1973. The Grass Cover of India. New Delhi: ICAR. 713 pp.

Natural resources and ecology

Gupta, R.K. 1971. Planning Natural Resources New Delhi: Navyug Traders. 269 pp.
---. and 1. Prakash, eds.1975. Environmental Analysis of the Thar Desert. Dehradun: English Book Depot. 484 pp.
Sen,A.K.1972. Agricultural Atlas of Rajasthan. New Delhi: ICAR. 51 pp.


Barnett, S.A., and 1. Prakash. 1975. Rodents of Economic Importance in India. New Delhi: Arnold-Heinemann. 175 pp.
Fitzwater, W.D., and 1. Prakash.1973. Handbook of Vertebrate Pest Control. New Delhi: ICAR. 92 pp.
Prakash, l., and P.K. Ghosh, eds. 1975. Rodents in Desert Environments.The Hague: Dr. W. Junk. 624 pp.

Combating desertification

Garg, H.P.1975. Solar Energy Utilization Research. CAZRI Monograph No. 3.48 pp.
ICAR. 1977. Desertification and Its Control. New Delhi. 358 pp.
Malhotra, S.P.1978. Socio-Economic Structure of the Population in Arid Rajasthan. CAZRI Technical Bulletin No.3.51 pp.
Mann, H.S. 1977. Desert Ecosystem and Its Improvement CAZRI Monograph No. 1. 390 pp.
Muthana, K.D.1977. Improved Techniques for Tree Plantations in the Arid Zone. CAZRI Technical Bulletin No. 2. 22 pp.
Pal, S.K.1977. White Grubs and Their Management. CAZRI Monograph No. 5.30 pp.
Prakash,I.1975. Proceedings of Summer Institute on Rodentology. CAZRI Monograph No. 2. 365 pp.
---.1976. Rodent Pest Management Principles and Practices CAZRI Monograph No. 4. 28 pp.
---. 1977. The Amazing Life in the Indian Desert. CAZRI Monograph No. 6. 18 pp.
Sen, A.K. 1978. Land Use Classification System in the Indian Arid Zone. CAZRI Monograph No. 9. 43 pp.
Shankarnarayan, K.A.1977. Proceedings of the Summer Institute on Resource Inventory and Land Use Planning. CAZRI Monograph No. 8. 373 pp.
Singh, R.P.1976. Improved Dryland Agriculture for Westem Rajasthan. CAZRI Technical Bulletin No.1. 28 pp.
Surendra Singh.1977. Geomorphological Investigations of the Rajasthan Desert CAZRI Monograph No. 7. 44 pp.

Appendix F:content of training programmes in arid lands management proposed by the university of New South Wales, Kensington, Australia

Climate studies

Meteorology and climatology with special reference to arid zones (K);* recording of meteorologic data, including bigclimatic and soil-climatic elements (K, F); handling and analysis of climatic data (K, B. F).

Surface hydrology

Surface hydrologic processes and sediment transport in arid zones (K); field measurement of run-off, stream flow and sediment transport (F); data handling and analysis (B. F).

Groundwater hydrology

Hydro-geology of arid environments (K); field studies,including field mapping (F); groundwater investigations, including water quality (F) and data handling and analysis (B).

Management of water resources

Conservation of water (K); design and construction of surface storages (K, F); conjunctive use of surface and sub-surface water (K); augmentation of run-off and water harvesting (K); minor irrigation practices (K); evaporation suppression (K).

Field engineering for water management (F. B)

Surveying and setting out for minor constructions; excavation techniques and plant; soil-testing, compaction and related treatments (sealing); concrete for arid environments; scour protection; construction for minor irrigation, water harvesting, etc.

Soils studies

Pedology with particular reference to arid-zone soils (K); soil-water relations and soil-nutrient and soil-salinity problems (K); weathering of rocks and soil development, including engineering properties of soils, under arid conditions (K); field pedological studies, including soils mapping and measurement of soil moisture, soil nutrients, salinity, etc. (F); laboratory methods in pedology (K, F).

Soil conservation and reclamation

Degradational soil processes in arid areas, including accelerated wind and water erosion, sealing, scalding, secondary salinization, and alkalization (K); methods of soil conservation and reclamation appropriate to arid areas (K); field methods of soil conservation and reclamation, including revegetation of denuded areas (K, F); field methods of stabilization of loose sand surfaces (F).

Vegetation studies

Vegetation studies, with emphasis on arid-zone vegetation and range-land ecology (K); field investigations of pattern, process, and productivity in range-lands, in relation to grazing (F); laboratory and herbarium methods (B. F).

Animal ecology

Components of an arid environment (K); ecology of sheep, goats and beef cattle in range-lands (K); ecology and physiology of native animals, other introduced species and past species (K); field experimental studies with emphasis on productivity of, and competition between, the major components of the native and introduced fauna (F).

Livestock management

Physiology, genetics, nutrition, and management of ruminants (K);
-pasture agronomy (K);
-classification and marketing of wool and meat from rangelands (K);
-agricultural economics (K);
-station practice in livestock and farm management (F);
-station management (F);
-field investigations of livestock production (F).

Range management

Range-land science (K);
-big-statistics (K);
-systems-analysis for range management (K);
-field methods for determining range-land condition and trend (F);
-establishment of trees, shrubs, and grasses (F).

Terrain evaluation, monitoring, and survey

Remote-sensing applications with particular reference to range studies, using conventional photography and multispectral, multi-temporal classification algorithms (K); topographic mapping at a range of scales; ground control and field interpretation (K, F); terrain evaluation for arid lands management (K); field practice in land evaluation (F).

Data handling

Computing (K); automated data handling in the field (B. F); organization, compilation, and maintenance of a multiple overlay spatial information system for digitally-supported analysis in relevant disciplines (K, B).

Integrated research project (F)

Appendix G:information on the research centre on development intropical dry areas, university of Rouen, France

Laboratoire de Recherches sur les Regions Seches,
U. E. R. de Lettres,
Rue Lavoisier,
76130 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France
Tel: (35) 98-69-30

Jean Gallais, Professor of Tropical Geography

Local staff (October 1978)
Dr. Luc de Golbery, Assistant in Tropical Geography
Jerome Marie, Senior Researcher
Gerard Romier, Senior Researcher
Ann Chappuis, Senior Researcher
Jean-Pierre Choet, Senior Researcher
Regina Souza, presently in Rouen-permanent address, Brazil
Marcos Ribeiro, presently in Rouen-permanent address, Brazil

Senior researchers on field research (1978)
Dr. Alain Beauvilain, Maitre-Assistant, University of
Yaounde, Cameroon
Dr. Jean Clanet, Maitre-Assistant, University of Djamena,

Dr. Hamidou Sidikou, Head of Department of Geography,
University of Niamey, Niger
Jean Gondolo, Professor, Lycee Yaounde, Cameroon
Jeanine Le San, University of Belo-Horizonte, Brazil
Yves Gervaise, University of Belo-Horizonte, Brazil

Research in Sahelian Africa (1972 - 78)

Relationships between agriculturists and pastoralists, and traditional strategies and development schemes in the face of drought.

Current research projects (October 1978)

Jean Gallais-Long-term analysis of socio-economic trends in the central delta of Niger, Mali
Jérôme Marie-Herdsmen and cultivators of the Ossolo area, Niger
Jean Clanet-Mobility in the Central Sahel from Darfur to Manga
Alain Beauvilain-Sahelian Fulani: case studies
Hamidou Sidikou-A national metropolis faced by drought: Niamey
Jean Gondolo-Fulani urban adaptation, the case of Ngoundere, Cameroon
Ghislain and Godefroy-Urban-rural relationships in a Soudano-Sahelian traditional area: GaYa and Kwassi, Niger
Gerard Romier-Agriculturists and pastoralists in Damergu, Niger

FIG. 1. The Locations of Research Projects and Publications in Francophone Countries

Main publications ( 1972 - 78)

Beauvilain, A.1976. "Eleveurs et aménagements hydropastoraux dans le Nord Kourfeye (Niger) au cours de la récente secheresse." In Cahiers géographiques de Rouen, 6, pp. 97-110.
-. 1978. Les Peul du Dallol Bosso. Etudes Nigériennes. 273 pp.

Clanet, J. 1975. "Les éleveurs de l'Ouest Tchadien: La mobilité des éleveurs du Kanem et leurs réponses à la crise climatique de 1969-73." Rouen University. Roneoed, 278 pp.

Gallais, J.1972. "Essai sur la situation actuelle des relations entre pasteurs et paysans dans le Sahel Ouest-africain." In Etudes de Géographie Offertes à P. Gourou.

-. 1972. Les Sociétés pastorales ouest-africain face au developpement Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines No. 3.
-.1975. Pasteurs et paysans du Gourme: La condition sahélienne. CNRS, Paris. 239 pp.
-.1975. "Traditions pastorales et développement: problèmes actuels dans la région de Mopti (Mali)." In Les Sociétés pastorales en Afrique Tropicale, International African Institute, pp. 354-58.
-.1976. "Options prises ou ignorées dans les aménage. ments hydro-agricoles en Afrique Sahélienne." Cahiers géographique de Rouen, 6, pp. 77-96.
-.1976. "Contribution à la connaissance de la perception spatiale chez les pasteurs du Sahel." L'Espace géographique, pp. 6-10.

Gallais, J., ed.1977. Stratégies pastorales et agricoles des Sahéliens durant la sécheresse de 1969-74. CNRS, Bordeaux. 281 pp.

Gallais, J., and H. Sidikou. 1978. "Stratégies traditionelles prise de décision moderne et aménagement des ressources naturelles dans la zone Sahelo-Soudanienne." In Notes techniques du MAB, No. 9. Unesco, Paris.

Hervouet,1975. ''Types d'adaptations sahéliennes: L'exemple des éleveurs de la Mauritanie centrale méridionale." Rouen University. Roneoed, 307 pp.

Sidikou, H . 1974. Sédentarité et mobilité entre Niger et Zgaret Etudes Nigériennes. 249 pp.

Local monograph séries (roneoed, available for consultation in Rouen)

Brochaye.1973."LeGoronol République du Niger."
Dufourmentel. 1974."La vallée de Monguel (Mauritanie)." 227 pp.
Le Guillern. 1973. "Etude agro-pastorale de la rive droite du Niger, de Lamorde à Say." 169 pp.
Parrington. 1977. "Les Aménagements hydro-agricoles de la moyenne vallée du Sénégal." 72 pp.
Poudou.1972. "Le Pays de Tiliabéri." 150 pp.
Quinquard. 1974. "Les Systémes agro-pastoraux chez les Peul du Djelgodji (Haute-Volta)." 115 pp.


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