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Selected reading

Analysis and interpretation of data
Water supply and sanitation
Hygiene promotion


Feuerstein MT. 1986. Partners in Evaluation. Macmillan, London. Distributors: Macmillan and TALC (Teaching Aids at Low Cost), PO Box 49, St. Albans, Hertfordshire AL1 4AX, UK.

Folmer HR, Moynihan MN and Schothorst PM. 1992. Testing and Evaluating Manuals. International Health Learning Materials (HLM) Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva. Distributor: WHO (HLM), 1211, Geneva 27, Switzerland.

Moser CON. 1993. Gender Planning and Development: Theory, practice and training. Routledge, London. Distributors: Routledge, 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE, UK.

Murray Bradley S. 1995. How People Use Pictures. International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Distributor: IIED, London.

Overseas Development Administration 1995. Guidance note on how to do stakeholder analysis of aid projects and programmes. Overseas Development Administration (ODA), Social Development Department, London. Distributor: ODA, 94 Victoria Street, London, SW1E 5JL, UK.

Srinivasan L.1992. Options for Educators: A Monograph for Decision Makers on Alternative Participatory Strategies. PACT/CDS, Communications Development Service, New York. Distributor: PACT, Inc. 777 UN Plaza, New York, New York 10017, USA.

White A. 1981. "Community Participation in Water and Sanitation." Technical Paper Series No. 17, IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, The Hague, The Netherlands.


Bentley ME, Boot MT, Gittelsohn J. Stallings R. 1994. "The use of structured observations in the study of health behaviour." IRC Occasional Paper No. 27, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and IRC, The Hague. Distributor: IRC, PO Box 93190, 2509 AD The Hague, The Netherlands. This can be obtained free of charge and if necessary photocopied as specified in its copyright statement.

Boot M, Cairncross S. eds. 1993. Actions Speak. The study of hygiene behaviour in water and sanitation projects. LSHTM and IRC, The Hague. Distributor: IRC, PO Box 93190, 2509 AD The Hague, The Netherlands. This is not free, but concessions may be agreed where applicable.

Cairncross S. Kochar V, eds. 1994. Studying Hygiene Behaviour: Methods issues and experience. Sage, New Delhi. Distributor: Sage Publications, 32 M-Block Market, Greater Kailash-I, New Delhi 110048, India/6, Bonhill Street, London EC2A, 4PU, UK/ 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA.

Dawson S. Manderson L, Tallo V. 1993. The Focus Groups Manual. INFDC, Boston. Distributors: International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries (INFDC ), PO Box 500, Charles Street Station, Boston, MA 01224-0500, USA.

Herman E, Bentley M. 1993. Rapid Assessment Procedures (RAP): To improve the household management of diarrhea. Methods for Social Research in Disease, International Nutrition Foundation for Developing Countries, Boston. Distributor: INFDC (as above).

Kolb DA. 1984. Experiential Learning: Experience as a source of learning and development. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Narayan D.1993. Participatory Evaluation: Tools for managing change in water and sanitation. World Bank Technical Paper, Number 207, Washington, DC. Distributor: The World Bank. l818 H Street. NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA.

Participatory. Rural Appraisal Hand book: Conducting PRAs in Kenya. Natural Resources Management Support Series, No. 1, National Environment Secretariat, Nairobi.

Patton MQ. 1990. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. (second edition) Sage, London.

Pelto PJ. Pelto GH. 1978. Anthropological Research: The structure of inquiry. Cambridge University Press, New York. Distributor: Cambridge University Press. 40 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011, USA.

Scrimshaw NS, Gleason GR, eds. 1992. Rapid Assessment Procedures: qualitative Methodologies for Planning and Evaluation of Health Related Programmes. INFDC, Boston. Distributor: INFDC (as above).

Scrimshaw S. Hurtado E.1987. Rapid Assessment Procedures for Nutrition and Primary Health Care. UCLA Latin American Centre, Los Angeles.

Srinivasan L. 1990. Tools for Community Participation: A Manual for training trainers in participatory techniques. PROWWESS/ UNDP Technical Series, Involving Women in Water and Sanitation, United Nations Development Programme, New York. Distributor: (as above).

Analysis and interpretation of data

Gill GJ. 1993. O.K, The data's lousy, but it's all we've got. Gatekeeper Series No. 38, International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Miles MB, Huberman AM. 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis. Sage, London.

Patton MQ. 1986. Utilization-focused Evaluation. Sage, London.

Pretty JN. 1994. "Alternative systems of inquiry for a sustainable agriculture." Inst Dev Studies Bull 25:37-48.

Silvermann D. 1994. Interpreting Qualitative Data. Sage, London. Distributor: Sage (as above).

Water supply and sanitation

Bern C, Martines J. de Zoysa I, Glass R. 1992. "The magnitude of the global problem of diarrhoeal disease: a ten-year update." Bull WHO 70:707-714.

Cairncross S. Feachem R.1993. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics. 2d ed. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. Distributors: Macmillan and TALC (as above).

Morgan P. 1990. Rural Water Supplies and Sanitation. Blair Research Laboratory & Ministry of Health, Harare. Distributor: MacMillan (as above).

Simpson-Herbert M. 1983. Methods for Gathering Sociocultural Data for Water Supply and Sanitation Projects. UNDP/World Bank, Technology Advisory Group (TAG), Washington, D.C.

Wagner KG, Lanoix JN. 1958. Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities. WHO, Monograph Series, No. 39, World Health Organization Geneva.

Warren KS. Bundy D, Anderson R. Davis AR, Henderson DA, Jamison DT, Prescott N. Senft A. 1991. Helminth infection. In: Jamison DT, Mosley WH, eds. Evolving health-sector priorities in developing countries. World Bank, Washington, DC.

WASH Project. 1993. Lessons learned in water, sanitation and health thirteen years of experience in developing countries. Water and Sanitation for Health Project, Arlington, VA.

World Health Organization. 1983. Minimum Evaluation Procedure (MEP) for water supply and sanitation projects. WHO, Geneva. Distributor: WHO, Rural Environmental Health, Geneva.

Hygiene promotion

Boot M. 1991. Just Stir Gently: The way to mix hygiene education with water supply and sanitation. IRC, The Hague. Distributor: IRC (as above).

Hubley .J. 1993. Communicating Health: An action guide to health education and health promotion. Macmillan, London. Distributors: Macmillan and TALC (as above).

World Health Organization. 1993a. ''Improving water and sanitation hygiene behaviours for the reduction of diarrhoeal disease." Report of an informal consultation, WHO/CWS & CDD, Geneva. Distributor: WHO, Rural Environmental Health.

World Health Organization. 1993b. "New directions for hygiene and sanitation promotion: The findings of a regional informal consultation." WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, New Delhi and COOS, Geneva.

Yacoob M, Braddy B. Edwards L. 1992. ''Rethinking Sanitation, Adding behavioural change to the project mix." WASH Technical Report No. 72, Arlington. Distributor: Environmental Health Project. 1611 N. Kent St., Room 1001, Arlington, VA 22209-2111, USA.

Evaluation sheet

(Please use additional paper if your answers require more space shall is provided)

About Yourself

1. Name:
Position held and project's name:
2. Who introduced you to this handbook and what made you decide to read/use it?

About This Handbook

1. Was the language clear and easy to understand?
2. Which section(s) of the handbook did you find easiest to understand and which parts were most difficult?
3. What do you think should have been included to make this handbook more useful to you?
4. Which sections did you think could have been left out?
5. Do you think this handbook should be translated into another language(s)? If so, which one(s)?

About Your Hygiene Evaluation Study

1. Describe each member of your study team including position/title, gender, and language(s) used during the investigation.
2. Which questions did your hygiene evaluation aim to investigate?
3. What was/were your working hypothesis/es?
4. Which methods and tools did you use?
5. What difficulties did you encounter?
6. Which level of participation was achieved?
7. What were your main findings?
8. Which of these findings were unexpected/surprising?
9. Who will use these findings? When?
10. How much of the information you obtained do you think could have gathered without using this handbook?

Tear off this sheer along the perforations and send it (along with any additional papers) to the following address:

Astier Almedom. LSHTM, Keppel St., London WC1E 7HT, U.K. Fax: +44 171 636 7843

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