Contents - Next


Preliminary development of this manual and two field tests were supported by the Control of Diarrheal Diseases (CDD) Program of the World Health Organization (WHO) through a contract with the Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. This does not imply endorsement of the manual or recommendations for its use by the CDD/WHO.

The approach presented here was developed by Drs. Elizabeth Herman and Margaret Bentley with assistance from Drs. Gretel and Pertti Pelto. The pioneering work of Drs. Susan Scrimshaw and Elena Hurtado on the development of rapid assessment procedures (RAP) paved the way for the application of ethnographic methods to primary health care programs. Dr. Elizabeth Herman conducted the field work and drafted and finalized the manual.

The comments and suggestions of Drs. Carl Kendall, James Trostle, Petra Osinski, and John Davies are gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are due to Dr. Farhat Sultana, Ms. Hamida Baluch, Ms. Maryanah Hamzah, Ms. Siti Huzaifah, and Ms. Siti Masreah for their ethnographic field work, as well as to the directors and staff of the Baluchistan Integrated Area Development Program and to the village, regency, provincial, and national staff of the Indonesian CDD Program.

Finally, the authors acknowledge the staff of Intercultural Communication, Inc., for their editorial contributions

Contents - Next